[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Wells, The world set free: A story of mankind (New York, 1914), 11-39.
2
P. A. Kid well, Solar radiation and heat from Kepler to Helmholtz (1600-1860) (Ph.D. thesis, Yale, 1979), 321-376
D. H. DeVorkin, An astronomical symbiosis: Stellar evolution and spectral classification (1860-1910) (Ph.D. thesis, Leicester, 1978), 16-21, 29, 42-45
J. D. Burchfield, Lord Kelvin and the age of the earth (New York, 1975).
3
Cf.A. M. Clerke, A popular history of astronomy during the nineteenth century (Edin- burgh, 1885), 350-355
A. Berry, A short history of astronomy from earliest times through the nineteenth century [1898] (New York, 1961), 406-408.
4
Burchfield (ref. 2).
see S. G. Brush, The temperature of history: Phases of sci- ence and culture in the nineteenth century (New York, 1978), 29-42
"Nineteenth-century debates about the inside of the earth: Solid, liquid or gas?" Annals of science, 36 (1979), 225-254
Chamberlin-Moulton cosmogony," Journal for the history of astronomy, 9 (1978), 1-41, 77-104.
Berry's observation ([ref. 3], 408)
Again, A. R. Wallace, Man's place in the universe (New York, 1904), 271-277
5
Burchfield (ref. 2)
L. Badash, Radioactivity in America: Growth and decay of a sci- ence (Baltimore and London, 1979), 92-94.
6
Rutherford and Soddy, "Radioactive change," Philosophical magazine, 5 (1903), 576-591
Rutherford, Radio-activity (Cambridge, 1904), 342-344
"Radium—the cause of the earth's heat," Harper's magazine, 110 (1905), 390-396
Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Journal, 1907, 145-165
Radioactive substances and their radiations (Cambridge, 1913), 653-656.
7
W. E. Wilson, "Radium and solar energy," Nature, 68 (1903), 222
A. M. Clerke, The system of the stars, 2nd ed. (London, 1905), 80, and Modern cosmogonies (London, 1905), 33-34
American Philo- sophical Society, 1905 (see Science, 29 [1909], 866)
G. E. Hale, The study of stellar evolu- tion (Chicago, 1908), 212-213
F. W. Dyson, Astronomy (London, 1910), 103-105
Abbot, The sun (New York, 1911), 270-279
A. R. Hinks, Astronomy (London, [1911]), 42-43
K. Schwarzschild, "Die Quellen der Sonnenwarme," Newcomb-Engelmanns populdre Astronomic 4th ed., ed. P. KempfT (Leipzig, 1911), 664-670
8
Darwin, "Radio-activity and the age of the sun," Nature, 68 (1903), 496
British Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual report, 1905, 3-32
Scientific papers, vol. II: Tidal friction and cosmogony (Cambridge, 1908), vii-ix.
9
C. J. Joly, 18 Oct 1903
W. V. Ball, Reminiscences and letters of Sir Robert Ball (Boston, 1915), 160.
The story of the sun (London, Paris, Melbourne, 1893), 262-279
In the high heavens (London, 1893), 264-275
The earth's beginning (London, 1901), 75-111.
10
Young, A textbook of general astronomy, 3rd ed. (Boston, 1904), 245, 576.
The sun (New York, 1881), 270-277
Science, 4 (1884), 192-203
A textbook of gen- eral astronomy (Boston, 1888), 218-227, 520-525.
11
Newcomb, Sidelights on astronomy and kindred fields of popular science: Essays and addresses (London and New York, 1906), 29-30, 56, 58-59
Encyclopedia britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Astrophysics;" Poincare, Lecons sur les hypotheses cosmogoniques (Paris, 1911), xiii-xiv, 219-220.
Popular astronomy (New York, 1878), 505-511
Astronomy for everybody (Garden City, 1902), 103-106.
The stars: A study of the universe (London, 1901), 224-225
Physics today, 33 (Mar 1980), 42-49.
12
Moulton, "On the evolution of the solar system," Astrophysical journal, 22 (1905) , 165-181
ibid., (1909), 1-13.
An introduction to celestial mechanics (New York, 1902), 57-61.
Brush, "A geologist" (ref. 4).
13
Eddington, "A criticism of Sir George Darwin's theories," Observatory, 29 (1906) , 179-181
Stellar movements and the structure of the universe (London, 1914), 37, 172, 255.
14
Russell, "Relations between the spectra and other characteristics of stars," Nature, 93 (1914), 227-231, 252-258, 281-286
Popular astronomy, 22 (1914), 275-294, 331-351.
Snyder to Russell, 10 Feb 1919
W. D. MacMillan to Russell, 23 Nov 1924 (RP).
DeVorkin, "Steps toward the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram," Physics today, 31 (Mar 1978), 32-39
DeVorkin (ref. 2), 300-387.
15
Eddington, "On the radiative equilibrium of stars," RAS, MN, 77 (Nov 1916), 16-35
Eddington and A. Fowler, "Proceedings at meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society," Observatory, 40 (Jan 1917), 38-44.
"The evolution of solar stars," Astrophysical jour- nal, 17 (1903), 165-200
Encyclo- pedia britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Star."
DeVorkin (ref. 2), 365, 372, 404-405.
16
Eddington to Russell, 31 Jan 1917 (RP).
Hertzsprung around 1905
Russell to Eddington, 27 Jul 1917 (RP).
17
Eddington, "Further notes on the radiative equilibrium of the stars," RAS, MN, 77 (Jun 1917), 569-612.
Jeans, "A suggested explanation of radio-activity," Nature, 70 (1904), 101.
18
Jeans, "The radiation of the stars," Nature, 99 (5 Jul 1917), 365.
19
Eddington, "The radiation of the stars," ibid.
Jeans, "The radiation of the stars," ibid. (2 Aug 1917), 444-445
T. S. Kuhn, Black-body theory and the quantum discontinuity, 1894-1912 (Oxford, 1978), 149-150
20
Eddington (ref. 19), 445.
21
Russell to Eddington, 27 Jul 1917 (RP).
Russell to Hale, 18 Sep 1917 (HC 56)
22
Eddington to Russell, 12 Aug 1917 (RP).
23
Jeans, "The equations of radiative transfer of energy," RAS, MN, 78 (Nov 1917) , 28-36
"The evolution and radiation of gaseous stars," ibid., 36-47
A. C. D. Crommelin and Fowler, "Proceedings at meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society," Observatory, 40 (Dec 1917), 434-435
Eddington to W. S. Adams, 13 May 1918 (HC 86).
24
Eddington, "Cepheid variables and the age of the stars," Observatory, 41 (Oct 1918) , 379-380
summarized in Nature, 102 (31 Oct 1918), 174.
RAS, MN, 79 (Nov 1918 and Jan 1919), 2-22, 177-188.
25
Shapley to Russell, 28 May 1916 and 20 May 1918 (RP)
Shapley to O. D. Kel- logg, 31 Dec 1918 (SPP 23B).
26
Shapley, "Studies based on the colors and magnitudes in stellar clusters, XII: Remarks on the arrangement of the sidereal universe," Astrophysical journal, 49 (Jun 1919), 311-336.
27
Matthew to Shapley, 10 Jun and 2 Jul 1918
Shapley to Matthew, 26 Jun and 23 Sep 1918
H. H. Collins, 2 Jul 1918
Macpherson, 7 Sep 1918
Barrell, 22 Sep 1918
SPP 23B.
28
Shapley, "The age of the earth: A discussion of recent evidence from geology and astronomy," Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications, 30 (Oct 1918), 283-298.
29
Shapley to Russell, 15 Oct 1918 (RP)
Hale, 29 Oct 1918 (HC 97)
Ritter, 11 Dec 1918
Nature, 28 Dec 1918 (SPP 23B).
30
Shapley, "Globular clusters, Cepheid variables, and radiation," Nature, 103 (13 Mar 1919), 25-27.
31
Jeans, "The internal constitution and radiation of gaseous stars," RAS, MN, 79 (Mar 1919), 319-332
Crommelin and T. E. R. Phillips, "Proceedings at meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society," Observatory, 42 (Apr 1919), 149-151
Jeans, "Globular clusters, Cepheid variables, and radiation," Nature, 103 (27 Mar 1919), 64.
32
Shapley to Ritter, 11 Dec 1918 (SPP 23B); to Hale, 19 Dec 1918 (HC 97)
Woodward, 19 Dec 1918 (SPP 23B).
Smithsonian Institution, Annual report, 1908, 233-244.
33
Shapley (ref. 30).
34
Shapley to Eddington, 22 Jan 1919
Shapley to Barrell, 19 Feb 1919 (SPP 23B).
35
Russell to Shapley, 19 Feb 1919 (SPP 23B)
Shapley to Russell, 27 Feb 1919 (RP).
36
Hale to Shapley, 27 Feb 1919 (SPP 23B)
Shapley to Hale, 7 Mar 1919 (HC 97).
37
Russell to Shapley, 13 Mar 1919 (SPP 23B)
Shapley to Russell, 25 Mar 1919 (RP).
38
Soddy, "Globular clusters, Cepheid variables, and radiation," Nature, 103 (20 Mar 1919), 43
Evans, ibid. (27 Mar 1919), 64
Jeans, ibid.
Poole, "Matter and radia- tion," ibid.
P. Forman, "Weimar culture, causality, and quantum theory, 1918-1927
HSPS, 3 (1971), 1-116, on 83f.
39
Shapley, "The age of the stars," Nature, 103 (12 Jun 1919), 284
Russell, 18 May 1919 (RP)
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications, 31 (Jun 1919), 178-180.
27 Jul 1919 (SPP 5C)
"The astronomical evidence concerning radiant energy," [Mar 1922] (SPP 1A)
H. Jeffreys, 28 Aug 1923
Starlight (New York, 1926), 70-77.
40
Russell to Shapley, 13 Mar 1919 (SPP 23B)
Webster to Russell, 25 Feb 1919 (RP).
AAAS meeting in Dec 1918
Science, 49 (7 Feb 1919), 127-139.
41
Russell to Shapley, 5 May 1919 (SPP 23B).
refs. 6, 12
42
Russell to Webster, 6 May 1919, unsent draft (RP).
43
Russell to Shapley, 9 Jun 1919 (SPP 23B).
44
Russell, "On the sources of stellar energy," Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Publications, 31 (Jul 1919), 205-211.
45
Russell to Hale, 9 Jun 1919 (HC 31).
R. H. Kargon, "Temple to science: Cooperative research and the birth of the California Institute of Technology," HSPS, 8 (1977), 13-31.
46
Russell to Webster, 9 Jun 1919 (RP).
47
Russell to Webster, 27 Jun 1919 (RP); Shapley to Russell, 25 Jun 1919 (RP)
Russell, "Some problems of sidereal astronomy," National Academy of Sciences, Proceed- ings, 5 (15 Oct 1919), 391-417.
48
Eddington, "Change of period of 8 Cephei," Observatory, 42 (Sep 1919), 338-339.
49
Eddington, "The sources of stellar energy," Obervatory, 42 (Oct 1919), 371-376
summarized in Nature, 104 (6 Nov 1919), 269.
50
Eddington, "The internal constitution of the stars," Nature, 106 (2 Sep 1920), 14-20
Observatory, 43 (Oct 1920), 341-358
British Association for the Advancement of Science, Annual report (1920), 34-49.
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