[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
*
Diary, B. Martin, ed., Faraday's diary (7 vols., London, 1932-36)
ERE, M. Faraday, Experimental researches in electricity (3 vols., London, 1839-55)
PM, The philosophical magazine and journal of science; PT, Royal Society of London, Philosophical transactions', SC, L. P. Williams et al., ed., The selected correspondence of Michael Faraday (2 vols., Cambridge, 1971).
1
"On Faraday's lines of force," in W. D. Niven, ed., The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), 1, 155-229, on 187.
2
"Remarks on the forces experienced by inductively magnetized ferro-magnetic or diamagnetic non-crystalline substances," Reprint of papers on electrostatics and magnetism (London, 1872), 500-514, on 503-504, 510.
3
L. P. Williams, Michael Faraday (London, 1965) and The origins of field theory (New York, 1966)
Joseph Agassi, Faraday as a natural philosopher (Chicago, 1971)
Wil- liam Berkson, Fields of force (London, 1974).
H. Bence-Jones, The life and letters of Faraday (2 vols., London, 1870), 2, 5, 385- 386.
4
Williams, Origins (ref. 3), 60-79
"Kant, Naturphilosophie, and scientific method," in R. N. Giere and R. S. Westfall, eds., Foundations of scientific knowledge: The nineteenth century (Bloomington and London, 1973), 3-22
Agassi, Faraday (ref. 3)
P. M. Heimann, "Faraday's theories of matter and electricity," British journal for the history of sci- ence, 5 (1971), 235-257
B. G. Doran, "Origins and consolidation of field theory in nineteenth century Britain: From the mechanical to the electromagnetic view of nature," HSPS, 6 (1975), 132-260.
David Gooding, "Faraday, Thomson, and the concept of the magnetic field," British journal for the history of science, 13 (1980), 91-129.
5
Agassi, Faraday (ref. 3), 80-91
Williams, Faraday (ref. 3), 291-294
Berkson, Fields (ref. 3), 24-34
David Gooding, "Conceptual and experimental bases of Faraday's denial of electrostatic action at a distance," Studies in history and philosophy of science, 9 (1978), 117-149.
6
"Thoughts on Ray-vibrations," PM, 28 (1846), 345-350
ERE, 3, 447-452.
7
A.-M. Ampère, "Memoir on a new electrodynamic experiment," PM, 66 (1825), 373-387
Théorie mathématique des phénomenès électrodynamiques uniquement déduit de Vexperience (Paris, 1827).
Faraday discussed Ampère's earlier work in his "Historical sketch of electromagnetism," Annals of philosophy, 2 (1821), 195-200, 274-290; 3 (1822), 107-121, esp. 111f.
8
Heimann, "Faraday's theories" (ref. 4)
T. H, Levere, Affinity and matter (Oxford, 1971)
D. M. Knight, The transcendental part of chem- istry (Folkestone, 1978)
Agassi, Faraday (ref. 3)
Williams, Faraday (ref. 3).
9
David Gooding, "Metaphysics versus measurement: The conversion and conser- vation of force in Faraday's physics," Annals of science, 37 (1980), 1-29
"Empiricism in practice: Teleology, economy, and observation in Faraday's physics," forthcoming.
10
ERE, 1, §§ 1, 2, 26, 60f, esp. 72.
11
Ibid., §§ 1709-1735.
12
Faraday first called these ferromagnetics in 1846, in "On the magnetic affection of light, and on the distinction between the ferromagnetic and diamagnetic conditions of matter," ERE, 3, 453-466.
"On the general magnetic relations and characters of the metals," PM, 8 (1836), 177-181
ERE, 2, 217-225.
13
Ibid., 1, §§ 1726-1735.
14
Ibid., 1, §§ 951-955, 1252-1306, 1688-1698.
15
Thomson to Faraday, 6 Aug 1845, SC, 1, 458-460
Diary, 4, §§ 7434-7497.
ERE, 1, §§ 1688-1698
16
Diary, 4, § 7498f
ERE, 3, § 2151f.
17
"On the magnetization of light and the illumination of magnetic lines of force," PT, 136 (1846), 1-20
ERE, 3, §§ 2146-2242, at §§ 2162-2188.
18
Ibid., §§ 2186, 2212, and p. 465
"On the diamagnetic conditions of flame and gases," PM, 31 (1847), 401-421, in ERE, 3, 467-490, esp. 487-489.
19
Ibid., §§ 2221-2222.
20
ERE, 1, §§ 1, 1411-1412, 1658-1665, 1733-1735
Faraday to Sir Charles Lemen, 25 Apr 1834, SC, 1, 267
Faraday to Whewell, 19 Sep 1835, ibid., 294-296.
21
ERE, 3, §§ 2224-2229.
22
ERE, 3, 2n
Faraday's correspondence between 9 Nov 1845 and 9 Jan 1846, SC, I, 461-482
Williams, Faraday (ref. 3), 387-391, 420-430, 442.
23
Diary, 4, § 7902
24
Ibid., § 7907.
25
Ibid., §§ 8038, 8059, 8081
ERE, 3, § 2252.
26
Diary, 4, §§ 7604, 7705.
27
Whewell to Faraday, ca. 10 Dec 1845, SC, 1, 412.
Diary, 4, § 8522
ERE, 3, § 2149
28
Diary, 4, § 7924, my italics.
29
"Historical sketch" (ref. 7)
Ampere, Théohe (ref. 7).
30
Diary, 4, § 7927.
31
Ibid., § 7928.
32
ERE, 1, §§ 1165f, 1320f, 1377-1378, 1667f.
33
Diary, 4, §§ 7961f, 7989-7991
ERE, 3, §§ 2309-2337.
34
Diary, 4, § 8081.
ERE, 3, §§ 2438, 2443
I, §§ 1320- 1339, 1611-1666.
35
Diary, 4, § 7979
ERE, 3, § 2247.
ibid., § 2806
Thomson, "On the theory of magnetic induction in crystalline and noncrystalline substances," PM, 1 (1851), 177-186, in Reprint (ref. 2), 465-481, on 467
"On certain magnetic curves, with applications to problems in the theories of heat, electricity, and fluid motion," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report, 1852:2, 18, in Reprint (ref. 2), 514-515
W. T. Brande, Dictionary of science, literature, and art, 2nd ed. (3 vols., London, 1867), s.v. "field, mag- netic."
36
Diary, 4, §§ 8109-8111.
37
Ibid., § 8113
38
Ibid., § 8114.
39
ERE, 3, § 2504.
40
Diary, 4, §§ 8115-8116, 8118.
41
ERE, 1, §§ 1634, 1706
ibid., §§ 114, 231-264
PT, 142 (1852), 25-56, in ERE, 3, §§ 3070-3176
"On the employment of the induced magneto-electric current as a test and measure of magnetic forces," PT, 142 (1852), 137- 159, in ERE, 3, §§ 3177-3242.
Gooding, "Metaphysics" (ref. 9), 20-25.
42
Diary, 4, §§ 8121-8122.
43
ERE, 3, § 2270.
44
Diary, 4, §§ 8118-8119.
46
Diary, 4, §§ 8127-8128.
47
Diary, 4, § 8133.
48
Ibid., §§ 8137-8144.
49
Ibid., §§ 8145-8156.
50
ERE, 1, §§ 1320-1335, esp. § 1331
51
Ibid., § 1566.
52
Ibid., § 1594.
53
M. N. Wise, "William Thomson's mathematical route to energy conservation: A case study of the role of mathematics in concept formation," HSPS, 10 (1979), 49-83
"The flow analogy to electricity and magnetism, I: William Thomson's reformulation of action at a distance," Archive for his- tory of exact sciences, forthcoming.
Gooding, "Faraday, Thomson" (ref. 4), § 5.
54
W. Sturgeon, "Electromagnetical experiments," PM, 63 (1824), 95-100
"On eleetromagnetism," ibid., 64 (1824), 242-249.
Whewell (SC, 2, 778- 779)
55
Diary, 4, §§ 7508, 7532, 7546, 7548, 8260, 8299, 8379, 8412-8413, 8598
ERE, 3, §§ 2246, 2305.
ibid., § 7871
56
Diary, 4, §§ 7871, 8260.
57
Cambridge and Dublin mathematical journal, 2 (1847), 230-235, in Reprint (ref. 2), 493-499.
"Theorems with refer- ence to the solution of certain partial differential equations," Reprint (ref. 2), 139-141.
"The flow analogy" (ref. 53)
58
Diary, 4, §§ 8507, 8514
59
Diary, 4, § 7924
John Tyndall, Faraday as a discoverer (London, 1868), as quoted in Bence-Jones, Life (ref. 3), 2, 278.
60
Diary, 4, § 8186
ERE, 3, §§ 2225-2227.
61
Ibid., §§ 8180-8181.
62
Ibid., §§ 8315-8323
ERE, 3 §§ 2302-2306.
63
Ibid., §§ 8160-8188.
64
"Magnetic relations" (ref. 12).
65
Diary, I § 8524
ERE, 3, § 2229.
66
Gooding, "Metaphysics" (ref. 9), 20f.
67
Diary, 4, § 7700
J. B. Biot, "Mémoire sur la polarisation circulaire et sur ses applications à la chimie organique" [1832], Académie des Sciences, Paris, Mémoires, 13, (1835), 39-175
ERE, 3, §§ 2230-2240
SC, 1, 466.
68
ERE, 3, §§ 2236-2240.
69
Diary, 4, §§ 8256, 8368.
70
Diary, 4, § 8257.
71
ERE, 3, §§ 1615-1616, 1628, 1665
Gooding, "Conceptual and experimental bases" (ref. 5).
72
Diary, 4, § 8262.
73
Ibid., § 8145.
74
ERE, 3, § 2788.
75
Diary, 4, §§ 8057-8059, 8330-8349
ERE, 3, §§ 2352-2369
76
Ibid., §§ 2362-2367.
77
Ibid., § 2368.
78
Diary, 4, §§ 8354, 8382-8383.
79
Ibid., §§ 8355-8358.
80
Ibid., §§ 8364, 8371, 8377-8378.
81
ERE, i, §§ 2439-2440, 2443, 2445.
82
Diary, 4, § 8398.
83
ERE, 3, §§ 2399, 2424
Diary, 4, §§ 8179, 8455-8639.
ibid., § 8603
84
Ibid., § 8399.
"On the forces" [ref. 57], 499
"Theorems" [ref. 57]
85
Diary, 4, §§ 8507, 8514.
86
Ibid., §§ 8455f, esp. § 8628.
ibid., §§ 8362-8378
87
ERE, 7, 321n
ref. 20
ERE, 3, §§ 2436, 2438, 2443-2446
88
Ref. 6
Diary, 4, §§ 8682-8694
ibid., §§ 7699, 7808-7821, 7912-7922
M. Somerville, "On the magnetizing power of the more refrangible solar rays," PT, 116 (1826), 132-139.
89
Gooding, "Metaphysics" (ref. 9), 17-22.
90
G. B. Airy, "Remarks on Dr. Faraday's paper on Ray-vibrations," PM, 28 (1846), 532-536
R. Hare, "On a recent speculation by Fara- day on electric conduction and the nature of matter," ibid., 26 (1845), 602-607.
91
"Ray vibrations" (ref. 6), 451-452
"Answer to Dr. Hare's letter" (Jul 1840), ERE, 2, 262-274, on 267
ref. 86.
"One cannot procure a space perfectly free from matter," ERE, 3, § 2787.
92
ERE, 3, § 2440, and pp. 465, 488.
93
PlUcker, "Experimental researches on the action of the magnet upon gases and liquids" [Mar 1848], tr. in R. Taylor and W. Francis, eds., Scientific memoirs (5 vols., Lon- don, 1837-52), 5, 553-578
Faraday, "Diamagnetic conditions" (ref. 18).
94
"On the repulsion of the optic axes of crystals by the poles of a magnet" [Oct 1847], Taylor and Francis, Memoirs (ref. 93), 353-375
"On the relation of magnetism to diamagnetism" [Oct 1847], ibid., 376-382.
SC, 1, 511-512, 519-521, 524-527, 536-537, 2, 541-543, 545-548, 550-551.
95
S. P. Thompson, Life of William Thomson (2 vols., London, 1910), 1, 207-208; SC, 1, 523-524.
96
"On the forces" (ref. 57), 499.
97
Reprint (ref. 2), 139-141.
98
Wise, "Thomson's mathematical route" (ref. 53), 62-69.
ERE, 3, § 3318 (Dec 1854).
99
Thomson, "Forces experienced" (ref. 57)
; Thomson to Faraday, 19 Jun 1847(?), SC, 1, 555-557.
Thompson, Life (ref. 95), 1, 214-216, dates the letter 1849
100
ref. 55
ERE, 3, § 2805
infra, refs. 118, 120.
101
"Repulsion" (ref. 94), 353
Williams, Faraday (ref. 3), 420f.
102
"Relation" (ref. 94), 380.
"On the theory of diamagnetism" [1849], in J. Tyndall and W. Francis, ed., Scientific memoirs (London, 1853), 332-358, on 332.
103
Diary, 5, §§ 9380, 9391, 9405-9406, 9416, 9431, 9504, 9704
ERE, 3, § 2496.
104
Ibid., §§ 9398, 9431
"Note on the position of a crystal of sulphate of iron in the magnetic field" (7 Dec 1848), ERE, 3, §§ 2615-2639.
105
Diary, 5, §§ 9440-9441, 9385
ERE, 3, §§ 2592f, esp. § 2607n.
106
Diary, 5, §§ 9386-9387.
107
Ibid., §§ 9442-9443.
108
Diary, 5, §§ 9415f, 9460-9465, 9540
ERE, 3, § 2461.
109
Diary, 5, §§ 9484, 9562
ERE, 3, § 2472.
Whewell, 13 Nov 1848, SC, 1, 530.
ERE, 3, §§ 2818f.
110
Diary, 5, 9536-9538, 9546, 9604
ERE, 3, §§ 2474, 2476.
111
Diary, 5, §§ 9567-9568.
112
Ibid., §§ 9703-9706
ERE, 3, §§ 2464, 2479.
113
Ibid., §§ 9582, 9681.
114
SC, 1, 516-518
ref. 33
115
Diary, 5, §§ 9494, 9683, 9704
ERE, 3, §§ 2463-2467, 2615
ref. 55.
116
ERE, 3, § 2588.
ibid., § 2797
117
Diary, 5, §§ 9504, 9683, 9704, 9734
ERE, 3, §§ 2624-2633.
118
Ibid., § 2626.
119
ERE, 3, §§ 2818-2815.
Faraday to Herschel, 22 Dec 1845, SC, 1, 475.
120
ERE, 3, plate III to § 3234f.
ibid., § 3240
"Magnetic curves" (ref. 35), 515.
121
ERE, 3, § 2591.
122
Plucker (ref. 94)
W. Weber, "On the excitation of diamagnetism according to the laws of induced currents" [Jan 1848], in Taylor and Francis, Memoirs (ref. 93), 477- 488
"On the measurement of electrodynamic forces" [Jan 1848], ibid., 489-529
"On the connexion of diamagnetism with magnetism and electricity" [1852] in Tyndall and Francis, Memoirs (ref. 102), 163-199
F. Reich, "Versuche Über die abstossende Wirkung eines Magnetopoles auf unmagnetische Körper" [1848], in PM, 34 (1849), 127-130
H. C. 0rsted, "Précis d'une série d'expériences sur le diamagnetisme," Annales de chimie et de physique, 24 (1848), 424-435.
123
Weber, "Excitation" (ref. 122), 480-481, 485.
124
Diary, 5, § 10219f.
125
Ibid., §§ 10162, 10065f, 10302, 10357, 10516f.
126
ERE, 3, §§ 2681, 2696
ref. 41.
127
Diary, 5, §§ 10553f
ERE, 3, §§ 2664-2688.
128
ERE, 3, §§ 2667-2676, 2693.
129
"Connexion" (ref. 122)
"On the theory of diamagnetism," PM, 10 (1855), 407-410.
J. Tyndall, Researches on diamagnetism and magne-crystallic action, including the question of diamagnetic polarity (London, 1870).
130
Diary, 5, §§ 10347-10363, 10575, 10624
ERE, 3, §§ 2696-2697.
131
Diary, 5, § 10359.
132
Ibid., § 10358
ERE, 3, § 2697.
133
Diary, 5, §§ 10624, 10625.
134
ERE, 3, § 2701.
135
ibid., 465n
"Some points of magnetic philosophy" (Feb 1855), ibid., §§ 3300-3362, esp. 3341 f
Faraday to Whewell (ref. 54)
Diary, 2, §§ 2840-2867.
136
Diary, 5, § 10624
137
"Diamagnetic condition" (ref. 18)
Diary, 5, §§ 10714-10791, 10860-10925
"On the magnetic and diamagnetic condition of bodies," PT, 141 (1851), 7-28, in ERE, 3, §§ 2718-2796.
138
Ibid., §§ 2721-2722
Thomson to Faraday, 6 Aug 1845 (ref. 15).
139
ERE, 3, §§ 2730-2750.
140
ERE, 3, § 2757
141
Plateau to Faraday, 25 Mar 1849, SC, 2, 543-545
Diary, 5, 196-198, and §§ 10714f, 10781-10925.
142
Ibid., § 10860f
ERE, 3, §§ 2758-2763.
143
ERE, 3, § 2781
Diary, 5, § 10896f, esp. §§ 10991, 11021
Faraday to Whewell, 10 Oct 1850, SC, 2, 593-595.
144
Diary, 4, §§ 8397-8398
ibid., § 8262.
145
Faraday to Whewell, 22 Aug 1850, SC, 2, 589.
146
ERE, 3, § 2807.
147
Ibid., §§ 2797, 2805, 2807-2810f
"Magnetic philosophy" (ref. 135).
148
ERE, 3, §§ 2440-2446, 2787-2790, esp. § 2788
Diary, 5, §§ 10373-10375, 10834, 11046-11047
Faraday to Plücker, 8 Jan 1850, SC, 2, 577-578.
149
ERE, 3, §§ 2818-2835.
150
Ibid., § 2787.
151
Ibid., § 2789
ref. 148.
152
ERE, 3, § 2805.
ibid., § 2806.
153
Williams, Faraday (ref. 3), 455-456.
154
ERE, 3, § 2806.
"Magnetic philosophy" (ref. 135), § 3361.
155
Ref. 150.
Heimann, "Faraday's theories" (ref. 4), 256-257
Doran, "Origins" (ref. 4), 176.
156
Refs. 109 and 149.
157
ERE, 3, §§ 2802, 2818, 2822, 2832, 2788.
159
"Magnetic conducting power... Atmospheric magnetism," PT, 141 (1851), 29- 84, in ERE, 3, §§ 2797-2968
"On atmospheric magnetism—continued," PT, 141 (1851), 85-122, in ERE, 3, §§ 2969-3069.
160
Refs. 49-53, 93, 98
ERE, 3, §§ 2798, 2846.
161
Ibid., § 2800.
Gooding, "Empiri- cism" (ref. 9).
162
"On the physical character of the lines of magnetic force" (Jun 1852), ERE, 3, §§ 3243-3299.
"Some points" (ref. 135).
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