[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Irving Langmuir, "Pathological science" (colloquium, Knolls Research Labora- tory, 18 Dec 1953, ed. R. N. Hall), Langmuir Papers, Library of Congress
Ian Firth, "N-rays: Ghost of scandal past," New scientist, 44 (1969), 642–643
Derek J. de Solla Price, Science since Babylon (New Haven, 1961), 153–160
Jean Rostand, Error and deception in science (New York, 1960)
H. Pieron, "Grandeur et decadence des rayons N," Ann'ee psychologique, 13 (1907), 143–169
G. F. Stradling, "A resume of the litera- ture of the N-rays, the N' rays, the physiological rays and the heavy emission," Franklin Institute, Journal, 164 (1907), 57–74, 113–130, 177–199.
Price, "Networks of scientific papers," Science, 149 (1965), 510–515.
2
Jean Rosmorduc, "Une erreur scientifique au debut du siecle: 'Les rayons N,,M Revue d'histoire des sciences, 25 (1972), 13–25
Robert T. Lagemann, "New light on old rays: N-rays," American journal of physics, 45 (1977), 281–284
Spencer Weart, "A little more light on N-rays," ibid., 46 (1978), 306
Pierre Thuillier, "La triste histoire des rayons N," La recherche, 9 (1978), 1093–1101
Irving M. Klotz, "The N-ray affair," Scientific American 242 (May, 1980), 168–175.
3
R. S. Westfall, "Newton and the fudge factor," Science, 179 (1973), 751–758
Stephen Jay Gould, "Morton's ranking of races by cranial capacity," ibid., 200 (1978), 503–509.
4
Blondlot, "Sur la vitesse de propagation des rayons X," CR, 135 (1902), 666– 670
"Sur l'egalite de la vitesse de propagation des rayons X et de la vitesse de la lumiere dans Pair," ibid., 721–724
"Observations et experiences complementaires rela- tives a la determination de la vitesse des rayons X," ibid., 763–766
Erich Marx in Physikalische Zeitschrift, 4 (1903), 310–314.
Marx, "Die Geschwindigkeit der Rontgenstrahlen," ibid., 6 (1905), 768–777.
5
Thomson, "Theory on the connec- tion between cathode and Roentgen rays," Philosophical magazine, 45 (1898), 172–183
Wheaton, On the nature of X and gamma rays: Attitudes toward localization of energy in the 'New Radiations,' 1896–1922 (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton, 1978), 47
Blondlot, CR (ref. 4), 763–766.
6
Blondlot, "Sur la polarisation des rayons X," CR, 136 (2 Feb 1903), 284–286
Blondlot, Rayons TV': Recueil des communications faites a VAcademie des Sciences (Paris, 1904), 1–6.
C. G. Abbot, "The N-rays of M. Blondlot," Smith- sonian Institution, Annual reports, 58 (1903), 207–214.
7
Blondlot, "Action des rayons X sur de tres petites etincelles electriques," CR, 134 (30 Jun 1902), 1559–1560.
Hertz, Electric waves (New York, 1893), 64–79.
8
Blondlot, "Sur une nouvelle espece de lumiere," CR, 136 (23 Mar 1903), 735- 738
Rayons W (ref. 6), 7-11.
9
Blondlot, "Sur de nouvelles sources de radiations," CR, ibid., (25 May 1903), 1227-1229
Rayons W, 16-21.
10
Leon Lecornu, "Necrologie [de Blondlot]," CR, 191 (1930), 1033-1034
Henri Poincare, "Rapport sur le prix Leconte, attribue a M. Blondlot," RS, 2 (21 Dec 1904), 843-844.
11
Blondlot, Recherches experimental sur la capacite de polarisation voltaique (Paris, 1881)
AN F1722097 (ref. 10).
12
Blondlot, "Determination de la vitesse de propagation des ondes electromagnetiques," CR, 113 (1891), 628-631
"Determination de la vitesse de propa- gation d'une perturbation electrique le long d'un fil de cuivre," 117 (1893), 543–546
Blondlot and Gutton, "Vitesse de propagation des ondulations electromagnetiques," Congres International de Physique, Rapports, ed. Ch. Ed. Guillaume and Lucien Poincare (4 vols. Paris, 1900-01), 268-283.
13
AN F1722097 (ref. 10)
Poincare, (ref. 10), 844
J. J. Thomson, Encyclopedia britannica, 11th ed., s.v.
"Electric waves," on 208.
14
Blondlot, "Egalite des vitesses de propagation des rayons X et de la lumiere dans Fair," Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles, 15 (15 Jan 1903), 5-29, on 25- 29
Rayons TV' (ref. 6)
15
J. J. Thomson, Encyclopedia britannica (ref. 13), s.v. "Rontgen rays"
Wheaton (ref. 5), 45-48:
16
Blondlot, "Sur l'existence, dans les radiations emises par un bee Auer, de rayons traversant les metaux, le bois, etc.," CR, 136 (11 May 1903), 1120-1123
Rayons W (ref. 6), 12-26.
17
"Lettre de M. H. Rubens," in RS, 2 (1904), 753-754.
Rubens and Hagen, "Sur les rapports entre les qualites optiques et electriques des metaux," Annales de chimie et de physique, 2 (1904), 185-214, on 212
18
Rubens, "Recherches sur le spectre infrarouge," Revue generate des sciences, 11 (1900), 7-13
Hans Kangro, "Ultrarotstrahlung bis zur Grenze elektrisch erzeugter Wellen: Das Lebenswerk von Heinrich Rubens," Annals of science, 26 (1970), 235-259
27 (1971), 165-170
DSB, s.v. "Heinrich Rubens," on 581-585.
19
Sag- nac, "La longeur d'onde des rayons N determined par la diffraction," CR, 136 (15 Jun 1903), 1435-1437.
20
Blondlot, "Nouvelles sources," (ref. 9).
21
Pierre Curie, "Radium," RS, (13 Feb 1904)
Annual report, 55(1903), 187-198.
22
Blondlot, "Sur une nouvelle action produite par les rayons N," CR, 137 (20 Jul 1903), 166-169
Rayons W (ref. 6), 24-29
"Nouvelles sources" (ref. 9), 20.
23
Blondlot, "Nouvelles sources" (ref. 20), 19; "Instruction pour confectionner des ecrans phosphorescents propres a Tobservation des rayons N," Rayons 'N' (ref. 6), 73-76.
24
ref. 6
Physikalische Zeitschrift, 5 (1 Sep 1904), 560.
25
Rayons 'N' (ref. 6), 11, 23
"Sur de nouvelles actions produites par les ray- ons N," CR, 137 (2 Nov 1903), 684-686,
Rayons 'N', 29-33
"Sur Temmagasinement des rayons N par certains corps," ibid., (9 Nov 1903), 729-731
Rayons 'N', 33-37.
26
Blondlot, "Sur le renforcement qu'eprouve Faction exercee sur l'oeil," CR, ibid., (23 Nov 1903), 831-833
Rayons W (ref. 6), 37-41
Curie (ref. 21), 194-195.
27
Blondlot, "Sur la propriete d'emettre des rayons N, que la compression confere a certains corps," CR, 137 (7 Dec 1903), 962-964
Rayons W (ref. 6), 41- 45.
28
Nature, 69 (1903-04), 182, 239-240, 264, 335, and 359.
29
Arsene d'Arsonval, "Les radiations N," Institut General Psychologique, Bul- letin, 3 (28 Dec 1903), 25-30, on 28.
30
Groupe d'Etudes des Phenomenes Psychiques, ibid., 4 (24 May 1904), 275-320, on 276-282.
31
Ibid., 4 (18 Jan 1904), 149-163, on 157.
32
D'Arsonval, "Les radiations N" (ref. 29), 29.
33
Discussion (ref. 31), 154.
34
Pieron, "Grandeur" (ref. 1), 144
CR, 138 (4 and 25 Jan 1904), 34, 189
d'Arsonval, "Remarques a propos des communications de M. A. Charpentier et des revendications de priorite auxquelles elles ont donne lieu," ibid. (11 Apr 1904), 884-885.
35
Rayons W (ref. 6), 32.
36
S. G. Brown and A. A. Campbell Swinton, letters of 23 Jan and 23 Feb 1904
Nature, 69 (1903-04), 296, 412
Dufour, Pieron, and Perrin, 10 Sep, 29 Oct, and 12 Nov 1904, RS, 2 (1904), 338-339, 548, 622-623.
37
O. Lummer, "M. Blondlot's N-ray experiments," Nature, 69 (1904), 378-380
"N-Strahlen Diskussionen," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 5 (1904), 606-607, 674-677
Stradling, "Résumé" (ref. 1), 184.
38
Stradling, ibid., 183.
39
Burke and Schenck, letters of 8 Feb and 10 Mar 1904, Nature, 69 (1903-04), 365, 486-487, respectively
M. Salvioni, "La question de la nature des rayons N," RS, 2 (1904), 73-78
ibid., 152-153, 658-659.
40
D'Arsonval, "Radiations N" (ref. 29), 28.
41
Charpentier, "La vision avec les diverses parties de la retine" (thesis, U. Paris, 1877)
"Sur les phenomenes retiniens," Rapports (ref. 12), 3, 523-546.
42
Discussion (ref. 30), 277-278.
43
"Opinion de M. Leduc," RS, 2 (12 Nov 1904), 623.
44
Simon Newcomb, Encyclopedia britannica, s.v. "Light," on 623-624
K. D. Froome and L. Essen, The velocity of light and radio waves (London and New York, 1969), 5-6.
45
Burke, letter of 21 Jun 1904
Nature, 70 (1904), 198
Langevin, "Enquete," RS, 2 (5 Nov 1904), 590-591
Blondlot, Rayons 'N' (ref. 6), 5.
46
E. Rothe, "Essai d'une methode photographique," CR, 138 (20 Jun 1904), 1589.
"Les experiences de M. Bordier: prouvent-elles Fexistence des rayons N?" RS, 2 (1904), 783-785.
Bordiefs note.
47
Blondlot, "Enregistrement, au moyen de la photographie, de Faction produite par les rayons N sur une petite etincelle electrique," CR, 138 (22 Feb 1904), 453-457
Rayons TV' (ref. 6), 53-59.
48
William Seabrook, Doctor Wood (New York, 1941), 237.
49
Blondlot to Director, Ministry of Public Instruction, 8 Apr 1903, AN F1722097 (ref. 10).
Weart, "A little more light" (ref. 2), 306.
50
"Declarations de M. Blondlot," RS, 2 (12 Nov 1904), 620-622.
51
U. Nancy, Faculte des Sciences, Conseil, Proces-verbaux, Dec 1888 - 11 Jan 1917
52
Blondlot, "Sur la dispersion des rayons N et sur leur longeur d'onde," CR, 138 (18 Jan 1904), 125-129
Rayons 'N' (ref. 6), 45-52.
53
Rayons 'N' (ref. 6), 59-67.
54
Figaro, 3 Feb 1904.
55
D'Arson val, "Vibrations et radiations," Bulletin (ref. 29), 4 (Mar - Apr 1904), 127-148, on 142-143.
56
Schenck, letter of 10 Mar 1904
Nature, 69 (1903-04), 486-487.
57
"Opinion de M. [Jean] Perrin," RS, 2(12 Nov 1904), 622-623.
Seabrook, Doctor Wood (ref. 48), 238.
58
Salvioni, "Question" (ref. 39), 76, 152-153.
59
RS, 2 (1904), 548, 590-591, 622-625, 656-657, 682, 719, 753.
60
RS, 2 (1904), 591, 638.
61
J. Meyer, "Berichte aus den naturwissenschaftlichen Abteilungen der 76. Versammlung deutscher Naturforscher und Arzte zu Breslau 1904," Naturwissenschaft- liche Rundschau, 19 (1904), 569-570
"Discussion of N-rays," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report (1904), 467-468.
62
"Les rayons N existent-ils?" RS, 2 (29 Oct 1904) 545-552.
63
Seabrook, Doctor Wood (ref. 48), 236
"Opinion de M. Berget," RS, 2 (1904), 658
A. Berget, Le radium et les nouvelles radiations (Paris, 1904)
"Lettre de M. H. Rubens," RS, 2 (1904), 753-754.
64
Seabrook, Doctor Wood (ref. 48), 238-239.
65
R. W. Wood, "La question de Texistence des rayons N," RS, 2 (22 Oct 1904) , 536-538
English original, "The n-rays," Nature, 70 (29 Sep 1904), 530-531
"Die N-Strahlen," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 5 (1 Dec 1904), 789-791.
66
Moissan in "Enquete" (ref. 59), 657.
67
"Déclaration de M. Blondlot," RS, 2 (12 Nov 1904), 620-622; "Declaration de M. Julien Meyer," ibid., (3 Dec 1904), 718-719
Blondlot, "Nouvelles experiences sur l'enregistrement photographique de Faction que les rayons N exercent sur une petite etincelle electrique," CR, 139 (21 Nov 1904), 843-846
RS, ibid., 731-732
"Declaration de M. E. Meyer," RS, ibid., (10 Dec 1904), 753
Blondlot, "Nouvelles experiences sur Tenregistrement au moyen de le photographie de Faction exercee par les rayons N sur une etincelle electrique," Revue generate des sciences, 16 (30 Aug 1905) , 727.
68
Gutton, "Experiences photographiques sur Faction des rayons N sur une etincelle oscillante," RS, 5 (27 Jan 1906), 118-120
Mascart, "Sur les rayons N," ibid., 117-118
69
Aime Cotton, "La question des rayons N," Revue du mois, 1 (10 Apr 1906), 503-506
[J. D.], "A propos des rayons N," RS, 5 (24 Mar 1906), 376
Rosmorduc, "Erreur" (ref. 2), 23-24
Jean Perrin, "A propos des rayons N," Revue du mois, 1 (10 Feb 1906), 254-256.
70
A. Turpain, "Les rayons N et les experiences de controle," RS, 5 (21 Apr 1906), 491-495.
Nature by A. Campbell Swinton, translated in RS, 5 (10 Mar 1906), 31.
71
RS, 6 (7 Jul 1906), 30-31
Emile Pierret, "Un moment de TEcole de physique de Nancy: Les rayons N et N', réalités ou mirages," Academie et Société Lorraines des Sciences, Bulletin, 7 (1968), 240-257.
72
RS, 2 (1904), 548, 621, 537, 591.
H. Zahn, "Zu den Versuchen des Herrn Blondlot uber N-Strahlen," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 4 (15 Dec 1903), 868-870.
73
Alan Gauld, The founders of psychical research (New York, 1968), 140
David B. Wilson, "The thought of late Victorian physicists: Oliver Lodge's ethereal body," Victorian studies, 15 (1971), 29-48, on 38-41.
74
Vie mondaine, 6 Jan 1904
Illustration, 23 Jan 1904 (excerpts in Carnot Collec- tion)
C. G. Abbot, "N-rays" (ref. 6), 214
Charles de Reichenbach's Les ph'enomenes odiques, trans. Ernest Lacoste (Paris, 1904)
Annales des sciences psychiques, 14 (1904), 186-187
Jules Regnault, "Phenomenes odiques et radiations nouvelles," ibid., 15 (1905), 167-177.
75
Joseph Maxwell, Les phenomenes psychiques (Paris, 1903), 152-153.
76
Illustration (ref. 74)
Car- not Collection, "Chronique scientifique: Les effluves humaines (rayons N)," Le nouvel- liste de Bordeaux, 12 (1904)
77
Rosmorduc, "Erreur" (ref. 2); Lagemann, "New light" (ref. 2), 281.
78
Charles Adam, "Preface," U. Nancy, L'Universite de Nancy (1572-1934) (Nancy, 1934), vii-xvi, on ix
Gaston Michel, "La Faculte de Medicine de Nancy," ibid., 63-82
Dominique Barrucand, "L'Ecole de Nancy," in his Histoire de I'hypnose en France (Paris, 1967), 102-134
Ernest Jones, The life and work of Sigmund Freud (3 vols., New York, 1953-57), I, 181,238.
79
John Ambrose Fleming, Encyclopedia britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Electrokinet- ics," on 216
Daniel J. Kevles, DSB, s.v. "Rowland," on 577-579
Victor Cremieu and Harold Pender, "On the magnetic effect of electrical convection," Philosophical maga- zine, 6 (1903), 442-464, on 442-444
Nature, 68 (28 May 1903), 87
Wood, "Question" (ref. 65), 538.
80
RS, 2 (1904), 552, 657
Seabrook, Doctor Wood (ref. 48), 239.
81
Conseil, Proces-verbaux, under 21 and 24 Jan 1902, 348-360
Harry W. Paul, The sorcerer's apprentice: The French scientist's image of German science, 1840-1919 (Gainesville, Fla., 1972).
82
Marjorie Malley, "The discovery of the beta particle," American journal of phy- sics, 39 (1971), 1454-1561, on 1459, n. 5.
Blondlot, Rayons 'N' (ref. 6), 24.
83
Paul Appell, Souvenirs d'un Alsacien 1858-1922 (Paris, 1923).
84
Andre Gain, "L'enseignement superieur a Nancy de 1789-1896," L'Universite de Nancy (ref. 78), 25-42.
85
E. Husson, "La Faculte des Sciences de Nancy," ibid., 83-122, on 68-88.
86
Guides Joanne: Nancy (Paris, 1909)
Jean Diez, Le regionalisme economique: Organisation de la region economique de I'Est (Nancy) (Paris, 1925), 20-23
Solvay et Cie, Exposition Internationale de Nancy, 1909 (Nancy, 1909).
Jacques Aubry, "Les precurseurs" (unpublished manuscript).
87
"The scientific periphery in France: The Faculty of Sciences at Toulouse (1880-1930)," Minerva, 13 (1975), 374-403, on 376-380
Andre Gain, LEnseignement superieur a Nancy de 1789 a 1896 (Nancy, 1934), 80.
88
Husson, "Faculte" (ref. 85), 87-88
Aubry, "Precurseurs" (ref. 86), 5
Adam, "Preface" (ref. 78), ix.
89
Proces-verbaux (ref. 81), (10 Feb 1900), 306
Robert Fox, "Scientific enter- prise and the patronage of research in France, 1800-1870," Minerva, 9 (1973), 442-473
Adam, "Preface" (ref. 78), ix
U. Nancy, Vingt-cinq ann'ees d'une universit'e nouvelle 1897-1922 (Nancy, 1923), 10.
90
Gaston Floquet, L'Exposition retrospective Lorraine des sciences (Nancy, 1912), 18.
91
ref. 10
U. Nancy, Assemblee de la Faculte des Sciences, Proces- verbaux, 1872-1945, under date 4 Feb 1882 (U. Nancy, Archives).
92
Blondlot to the director, 29 Dec 1882, AN F1722097 (ref. 10).
93
Stradling, "Resume" (ref. 1)
PoggendorfFs Biographisch-Literarisches Handworterbuch.
94
Blondlot and Curie, Sur un electromette astatique pouvant servir comme wattmetre (Nancy, 1889).
95
Jean Becquerel, Notice sur les travaux scientifiques de M. Jean Becquerel (Paris, 1934), 89-90
CR, 139 (4 Jul 1904), 40-42
ibid. (25 Jul 1904), 264-267.
96
Ernest Lavisse, Questions d'enseignement national (Paris, 1885), 94-95
William R. Keylor, Academy and community: The foundation of the French historical pro- fession (Cambridge, Mass., 1975), 70.
97
"Science and Socialism: The case of Jean Perrin in the Third Republic," French historical studies, 9 (1975), 141-169.
99
Poincare, "Rapport" (ref. 10), 843-844.
100
Blondlot, Archives (ref. 98).
101
E. Bouty, Radiations, electricite, ionisation, 3rd suppl. to J. Jamin, Cows de physique de l'Ecole Poly technique, 4th ed., rev. Bouty (Paris, 1906), 40-41.
102
Blondlot to Minister, 23 Jul 1909, AN F,722097
Pierret, "Moment" (ref. 71), 254.
103
"Rapport du Conseil de l'Universite de Nancy pour l'annee 1929-1930," U. Nancy, Rapport du Conseil (1929-1930) (Nancy, 1931), 1-12, on 5.
104
Suleiman, Elites in French society: The politics of survival (Princeton, 1978), 4.
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