[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Florian Cajori, A history of mathematics (New York, 1961), 255-265, 282ff
E. T. Bell, The development of mathematics (New York, 1940), 344-373
Rene Dugas, A history of mechanics, trans. J. R. Maddox (New York, 1955), 332-433
Carl B. Boyer, History of analytic geometry (New York, 1956), 196-224
A history of mathematics (New York, 1968), 522-523, 537-538
Rene Taton, "Sylvestre-Francois Laeroix (1765- 1834): Mathematicien, professeur et historien des sciences," International Congress of the History of Science, VII, Actes (1953), 588-593
"Laplace et Sylvestre-Francois Laeroix," Revue d'histoire des sciences, 6 (1953), 350-360.
2
Hermann Hankel, Die Entwicklung der Mathematik in den letzten Jahrhunderten (Tubingen, 1869), 12ff
Cajori, Mathematics (ref. 1), 23Iff, 257-259
S. Dickstein, "Zur Geschichte der Prinzipien der Infinitesimalrechnung. Der Kritiker der 'Théorie des fonctions analytiques' von Lagrange," Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik, 9 (1899), 65-79
A. P. Iushkevich, "Euler und Lagrange über die Grundlagen der Analysis," Sammelband der zu Ehren des 250 Geburtstages Leonhard Eulers (Berlin, 1959), 224-244
Bell, Development (ref. 1), 267-278
Boyer, Mathematics (ref. 1), 554ff
The concepts of the calculus (New York, 1949), 224-309
Nicolas Bourbaki, Elements d'histoire des mathematiques (Paris, 1960), 217-228
I. Grattan-Guiness, The development of mathematical analysis from Euler to Riemann (Cambridge, Mass., 1970)
Thomas Hawkins, Lebesque's theory of integration (New York, 1970)
Judith V. Gra- biner, "J. Louis Lagrange" (Ph. D. diss., Harvard University, 1968)
"The origins of Cauchy's theory of the derivative," Historia mathematica, 5 (1978), 379-409.
3
"Lacroix on the differential and integral calculus," Monthly review, 32 (1800), 493.
4
Lacroix, Essais sur Venseignement [1805] (Paris, 1838), 5, 77, 176-178.
5
J. M. Dubbey, "The introduction of the differential notation to Great Britain," Annals of science, 19 (1963), 37-48
Cajori, Mathematics (ref. 1), 272
Boyer, Mathematics (ref. 1), 583, 621
W. W. Rouse Ball, A history of the study of mathematics at Cambridge (Cambridge, 1889), 117-127
Walter F. Cannon, "William Whewell, F. R. S. (1794-1866): II. Contributions to science and learning," Royal Society, Notes and records, 19 (1964), 176-191, on 176-177
"The role of the Cambridge movement in early 19th century science," International Congress of the History of Science, X (1962), Actes (2 vols., 1964), 1, 217-220
Taton, Les méthodes en mathématiques au XVIIe siècle et au début du XIXe siécle (Paris, 1952), 111 (Actualites scientifiques et indus- trielles, no. 1166)
Susan Faye Cannon, Science in culture: The early Victorian period (New York, 1978), 33-36
Maurice Crosland and Crosbie Smith, "The transmission of physics from France to Britain: 1800-1840," HSPS 9 (1978), 1-61, esp. 13-14.
7
Cannon, "Whewell" (ref. 5)
R. Robson, "William Whewell, F. R. S. (1794-1866): I. Academic life," Royal Society, Notes and records, 19 (1964), 168-176
I. Todhunter, William Whewell, D. D., Master of Trinity College, Cambridge: An account of his literary and scientific correspondence (London, 1970)
[Janet] Stair Douglas, Life and selections from the correspondence of William Whewell (London, 1881).
8
Latham Wainewright, The literary and scientific pursuits which are encouraged and enforced in the University of Cambridge (London, 1815), 77
The Cambridge guide (Cam- bridge, 1837), 13-15, 26-27
D. A. Winstanley, Unreformed Cambridge (New York, 1977), 57-91, 323-331
Early Victorian Cambridge (New York, 1977), 152-167, 207-213, 245-246, 279-280;
Sheldon Rothblatt, The revolution of the dons (New York, 1968), 181-186.
9
Wainewright, Pursuits (ref. 8), 49-53
"The Cambridge system of education," Quartely journal of education, 2 (1831), 246-248
"University reform," British and foreign review, 5 (1837), 192-194
Cambridge guide (ref. 8), 9-12, 15-16
Winstanley, Unreformed Cam- bridge, (ref. 8), 95-99, 129-152, 173-182, 269-276.
10
Whewell to Moreland, 3 Oct 1819
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 35-36
J. W. L. Glaisher, "The Mathematical Tripos," London Mathematical Society, Proceedings, 18 (1886-87), 10-11
C. Wordsworth, Scholae academicae (Cam- bridge, 1877), 37, 321-322
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 164-186
Cambridge papers (Cambridge, 1918), 257-258
Winstanley, Early Victorian Cambridge (ref. 8), 149-150, 159.
11
Henry Gunning, Reminiscences of the universty, town and county of Cambridge (2 vols., Cambridge, 1854), 1, 15-16, 79-92
R. T. Gunther, Early science in Cambridge (Oxford, 1937), 83-84
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 70-73, 164-191
"The Mathemati- cal Tripos," Cambridge review, 1 (1879-80), 18
Papers (ref. 10), 257-273
Winstan- ley, Unreformed Cambridge (ref. 9), 51-57
Glaisher, "Tripos" (ref. 10), 10-11
Ben Ross Schneider, Wordsworth's Cambridge education (Cambridge, 1957), 4-5, 10-11, 24- 39
George Biddell Airy, Autobiography (Cambridge, 1869), 33
T. J. N. Hilken, Engineering at Cambridge University, 1783-1965 (Cambridge, 1967), 8-12.
12
J. R. Tanner, The historical register of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1917), 352, 480-483
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 171, 198-199, 211
Papers (ref. 10), 272
Glaisher, "Tripos" (ref. 10), 14.
13
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 209
Todhunter, The conflict of studies and other essays (London, 1873), 202.
14
Wordsworth, Scholar (ref. 10), 322-323
Wainewright, Pursuits (ref. 8), 80- 82
Gunning, Reminiscences (ref. 11), 1, 84-93
Guide (ref. 8), 21-22
Rouse Ball, His- tory (ref. 5), 187-219
Papers (ref. 10), 257-273
Babbage, Passages from the life of a philosopher [1864] (New York, 1969), 31-33
Glaisher, "Tripos" (ref. 10), 10-19 Todhunter, Conflict (ref. 13), 226-227.
Report (London, 1922), 27.
Tanner, Register (ref. 12), 468-509.
15
Guide (ref. 8), 13-15, 19-25
"System" (ref. 9), 246- 250.
16
Wainewright, Pursuit (ref. 8), 80-83
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 210-211
"System" (ref. 9), 245
Anon., University education (London, 1842), 7-9, 22-23
Win- stanley, Early Victorian Cambridge (ref. 8), 65-71, 168, 216-218, 279-281
R. F. Holmes, "A historical note on the Natural Science Tripos," Cambridge review, (1965), 199-203, 222-225, 235-241.
17
Wainewright, Pursuits (ref. 8), 40-53, 60-67, 80-83
"Wood's Algebra" Quar- terly journal of education, 3 (1832), 276
Sophia E. De Morgan, Memoir of A. De Mor- gan (London, 1882), 387-392
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 117
Papers (ref. 10), 284-287
Gunther, Early science (ref. 11), 63-64
Schneider, Wordsworth's education (ref. 11), 24-39, 167-173.
18
Wood, The elements of algebra, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1798)
The elements of optics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1801)
The principles of mechanics (Cambridge, 1796)
Vince, The elements of conic sections (Cambridge, 1781)
The principles of fluxions, 3rd ed. (Cambridge, 1805)
The principles of hydrostatics, 4th ed. (Cambridge, 1812)
The elements of astronomy (Cambridge, 1801)
A complete system of astronomy (3 vols., Cambridge, 1797-1808)
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 119-121
Gunther, Early science (ref. 11), 62-63, 85, 172.
19
Robert Woodhouse, "Vince's System of astronomy, vol. II," Monthly review, 35 (1801), 81
The principles of analytical calculations (Cambridge, 1803), xxxi, 40 A treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry, 5th ed. (Cambridge, 1827), ii-iii, v, 82
"La Place, Traite de mecanique celeste," Edinburgh review, 11 (1808), 231
J. Toplis, A treatise upon analytical mechanics (Cambridge, 1814), 5
"Dealtry's Principles of fluxions" Edinburgh review, 26 (1816), 98
Daniel Mitford Peacock, A comparative view of princi- ples of the fluxional and differential calculus (Cambridge, 1819), 3, 95.
20
"Lacroix" (ref. 3), 493.
21
Augustus De Morgan, "William Frend," Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly notices, 5 (1843), 144-151
22
Woodhouse, "Maseres' appendix to Frend's Algebra," Monthly review, 33 (1800), 177-180
"Frend's Principles of algebra," ibid., 180-184.
23
Agnesi, Analytical institutions in four books, trans. John Colson (London, 1801).
Boyer, Geometry (ref. 1), 177-179
A. F. Frisi, Eloge historique de Maria Gaetana Agnesi (Paris, 1807).
24
Woodhouse, "Agnesi's Analytical institutions translated," Monthly review, 41 (1803), 258-263.
25
Hellins, "Maria Gaetana Agnesi's Analytical institutions," British critic, 24 (1806), 655.
26
Newton, Principia, ed. F. Cajori (Berkeley, 1934), 29-34.
Lacroix, Elementary treatise on the differential and integral calculus
George Peacock, John Herschel, and Charles Babbage (Cambridge, 1816), 63
Grattan-Guiness, Development (ref. 2), 7-8, 14-15, 39-40, 55-61.
27
Woodhouse, Principles (ref. 19), i-61, 102-108, 163, 209-219, on xviii, xvi.
28
Wood, Algebra (ref. 18), 24-40
"Wood's Algebra" (ref. 17), 279-281
"Dealtry's Principles" (ref 19), 87-98
Dealtry, The principles of fluxions (Cambridge, 1810), iii-iv.
29
Wainewright, Pursuits (ref. 8), 35-43, 92-100
Peacock, View (ref. 19), 3, 84- 85
Dealtry, Fluxions (ref. 28), ii-iv
G. Otto Trevelyan, The life and letters of Lord Macaulay (New York, 1898), 86-87, 90-92
Schneider, Wordsworth's education (ref. 11), 106-107, 137, 167-169, 181-183
Sheldon Rothblatt, Tradition and change in English liberal education (London, 1976), 75-125.
30
Woodhouse, A treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry (Cambridge, 1809)
An elementary treatise on astronomy (Cambridge, 1812)
A treatise on astronomy, theoretical and practical, new ed. (Cambridge, 1821-1823).
31
[Babbage and Herschel], Memoirs of the Analytical Society (Cambridge, 1813), xxi
Babbage, Passages (ref. 14), 29.
Cajori, Mathematics (ref. 1)
Boyer, Mathematics (ref. 1), 1815
Roth, "Old Cambridge days," American mathematical monthly 78 (1971), 223-236, 1821
Babbage, "A history of the origin and progress of the calculus of func- tions," Ms. Buxton 13, p. 23 (Ashmolean History of Science Museum, Oxford).
ibid., 26
ibid., 23-26
Babbage, Passages (ref. 14), 27-29.
32
Babbage and Herschel, Memoirs (ref. 31), ii, iv-vi, ix, xxi, on ii
Lacroix, Calculus (ref. 26), 588-589, 610-618
William Spence, Mathematical essays with a brief memoir of the author, ed. Herschel (London, 1820), xii-xiii, xxiii
Babbage, History (ref. 31), 214-216, 267-268
Examples of the solutions of functional equations (Cambridge, 1820), 5
George Peacock, Collection of examples of the applications of the differential and integral calculus (Cambridge, 1820), 122, 152, 159, 267, 422, 479
Herschel, A collec- tion of examples of the applications of the calculus of finite differences (Cambridge, 1820), iii-iv.
33
Babbage and Herschel, Memoirs (ref. 31), vi-ix
Herschel, Examples (ref. 32), iii-iv
Peacock, Examples (ref. 32), 122.
34
Peacock, Examples (ref. 32), 422
Spence, Essays (ref. 32), xxxi-xxxii
John Gait, "Biographical sketch of Mr. William Spence," in Spence, Essays (ref. 32).
35
Spence, Essays (ref. 32), xii-xiv.
36
Dickstein, "Geschichte" (ref. 2)
Grattan-Guiness, Development (ref'. 2), 1-47.
37
Grattan-Guiness, Development (ref. 2), 48-151
Felix Klein, Vorlesungen ilber die Entwicklung der Mathematik im 19. Jahrhundert (2 vols., New York, 1950), 1, 82-87
Boyer, Concepts (ref. 2), 269fT
A. E. Taylor, "The differential: Nineteenth and twentieth century developments," Archive for history of exact sciences, 12 (1974), 359-373.
38
Lacroix, Trait'é du calcul differentiel et du calcul intégral, (3 vols., Paris, 1797- 1800)
Trait'é élementaire du calcul différentiel et du calcul intégral (Paris, 1802).
39
Lacroix, Calculus (ref. 26), "Advertisement," 594-596, 605
Examples (ref. 32).
40
Peacock, View (ref. 19), 1-22, 34-37, 87.
41
Lacroix, Calculus (ref. 26), 586-619, on 587, 612.
42
Grattan-Guiness, Development (ref. 2), 30.
Calculus (ref. 26), 76.
43
Cambridge problems: Being a collection of the printed questions proposed to the candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts at the General Examinations from 1801 to 1820 inclusive (Cambridge, 1821), 338-341, 353-358.
44
De Morgan, A budget of paradoxes, 2nd ed. (New York, 1954), 86.
45
Babbage, History (ref. 31), 26, 39
Babbage, Passages (ref. 14), 39-40.
46
Constance A. Lubbock, The Herschel chronicle: The story of William Herschel and his sister Caroline Herschel (Cambridge, 1933), 348-351
Michael Sutton, "Sir John Herschel and the development of spectrosocopy in Britain," British journal for the his- tory of science, 7 (1974), 42-60, on 44.
47
B. V. Boweden, "Foreword," to Mabath Moseley, Irascible genius: A life of Charles Babbage, inventor (London, 1964), 16.
48
George Pryme, Autobiographic recollections (Cambridge, 1870), 91.
49
Dubbey, "Introduction" (ref. 5), 47-48
Cannon, "Contributions" (ref. 5), 176-177
Donald S. Cardwell, The organization of science in England (London, 1957), 41
John Herivel, "Introduction," in William Whewell, The philosophy of the inductive sciences, 2nd ed. [1847] (New York, 1967), xiv-xv.
50
Whewell to Herschel, 6 Mar 1817, Herschel Papers, HS 18.158, Royal Society
Whewell to H. J. Rose, 17 Mar 1819, Whewell Papers, 0.15.47, f. 382, Trinity College Library, Cambridge.
51
Whewell, Treatise on dynamics (Cambridge, 1823), x.
52
Cambridge problems (ref. 3), 338-341, 353-358, and 403-447, 418- 425.
I. M. F. Wright, Solutions of the Cambridge problems from 1800 to 1820, rev. ed. (2 vols., London, 1836).
53
Whewell to Herschel, 1 Nov 1818
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 2, 30.
54
Henry Coddinton, An elementary treatise on optics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1825), iii
Wood, Optics (ref. 18).
Airy, Autobiography (ref. 11), 33.
55
Whewell, An elementary treatise on mechanics (Cambridge, 1819), 101, 167- 171, 200-202, 218-221
Dynamics (ref. 51), 83-84, 346-347, 352-353, 362-363
Wood, Mechanics (ref. 18).
56
E. T. Bridge, A treatise on mechanics (Cambridge, 1814).
57
Whewell, Mechanics (ref. 55), vi.
58
J. L. Lagrange, Méecanique analytique [1788] (Paris, 1965), 10.
Boyer, Geometry (ref. 1), 201-204.
59
Whewell, Mechanics (ref. 55), 137-167
Analytical statics: A supplement to the fourth edition of an elementary treatise on mechanics (London, 1833), 24-26
The first principles of mechanics with historical and practical illustrations (London, 1832), ix, 20-22
60
Whewell, Mechanics (ref. 55), x-xi, xiii
Dynamics (ref. 51), i-viii.
61
"Preface," Cambridge Philosophical Society, Transactions, 1 (1821), v
"On the position of the apsides of orbits of great excentricity," ibid., 179-191
"On the rota- tory motion of bodies," ibid., 2 (1827), 11-20.
62
Whewell, "Apsides" (ref. 61)
Newton, Principia (ref. 26), 65-67, 141-147.
63
Whewell, "Apsides" (ref. 61), 181-185, 190-191.
64
Grattan-Guiness, Development (ref. 2), 34-35, 119-122.
65
J. M. F. Wright, A commentary on Newton's Principia (2 vols., [1831] New York, 1972), 1, 266-269.
66
Whewell, "Rotatory motion" (ref. 61), 11-20.
67
J. D. Forbes to Whewell, 15 Nov 1833
John Campbell Shairp, Peter Guthrie Tait, and A. Adams-Reilly, Life and letters of James David Forbes (London, 1873), 105.
Airy, Autobiography (ref. 11), 29
Whewell, History of the inductive sciences from the earliest to the present time, 3rd ed. [1857] (3 vols., London, 1967), 2, 86-87
Dugas, History (ref. 1), 276-278.
68
"Electricity," Encyclopaedia metropolitana, 4 (London, 1845), 41-172
Whewell, On the free motion of points and on universal gravitation, 3rd ed. (Cambridge, 1836), xviii.
WhewelFs "Electricity"
De Morgan to Whewell, 18 May 1846
Lunn to Whewell, 31 Jan 1847, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), 0.15.48, and Add. Ms. a208, f. 105
Whewell to De Morgan, 21 May 1846, BP5, University of London Library.
69
Whewell, "A general method of calculating the angles made by any planes of crystals, and the laws according to which they are formed," Royal Society, Philosophi- cal transactions, 115 (1825), 87-130
"On the classification of crystalline combinations and the canons by which their laws of derivation may be investigated," Cambridge Philosophical Society, Transactions, 2 (1827), 391-425
"Reasons for the selection of notation to designate the planes of crystals," ibid., 427-439
"Specimen of the use of notation in the analysis of crystalline forms," Edinburgh journal of science, 6 (1827), 1-6.
Humphry Davy to Whewell, 14 Jun 1824, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a202, f. 92
Society of Arts, Journal, 14 (1866), 334.
70
Hamilton, The principles of analytical geometry (Cambridge, 1826), ii
71
Hamilton, An analytical system of conic sections (Cambridge, 1828), iii-v, 1-15, 30, 36-41.
72
Hymers, A treatise on conic sections and the application of algebra to geometry (Cambridge, 1837).
73
Peacock, "Report on the progress and present state of certain branches of analysis," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report, 3 (1834), 241- 251, 267-282, on 248.
74
Peacock, Treatise on algebra (Cambridge, 1830).
Wood's Algebra
"Wood's Algebra" (ref. 17), 277-278.
Elaine Koppleman, "The calculus of operations and the rise of abstract algebra," Archive for history of exact sciences, 8 (1971), 155-182
Lubos Novy, Origins of modern algebra (Leyden, 1973), 187-194
J. M. Dubbey, "Bab- bage, Peacock and modern algebra," Historia mathematica, 4 (1977), 294-302
Luis M. Laita, "The influence of Boole's search for a universal method in analysis on the crea- tion of his logic," Annals of science, 34 (1977), 165, 172
Bell, Development (ref. 1), 164-166.
75
Hymers, A treatise on the integral calculus (Cambridge, 1831)
Miller, An elemenatry treatise on the differential and integral calculus (Cambridge, 1833), 3
Hall, An elementary treatise on the differential and integral calculus (Cambridge, 1834), 44-45, 67- 83
Hymers, A treatise on the theory of algebraical equations (Cambridge, 1837), 31-32, 118-119
Differential equations and the calculus of finite difference, 2nd ed. (Cam- bridge, 1858), 1-5, 50-99, 124-141.
Hymers, Integral calculus, "Preface."
76
O'Brien, An elementary treatise on the differential calculus, in which the method of limits is exclusively made use of (Cambridge, 1842), iv, viii, 2, 5, 8, 12-13.
77
Walton, A treatise on the differential calculus (Cambridge, 1846), i-ii, 1-2, 6, 8, 137-140.
78
Problems (ref. 43)
Matthew O'Brien and Robert Leslie Ellis, The Senate House problems for 1844 with solutions (Cambridge, 1844).
79
R. Potts to Whewell, 18 Mar 1847
Airy to Whewell, 25 Aug 1845
R. L. Ellis to William Walton, 1856?, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a64, f. 62, Add. Ms. a200, f. 60, and Add. Ms. c67, f. 23
Report (Great Britain, Parliament, House of Commons, Sessional Papers, 1852-53, 44:1), 112, 229, 240, 244.
80
E. T. Bell, Men of mathematics (New York, 1937), 378-405
Green, Klein, Vorlesungen (ref. 37), 1, 19, 231-232
Gregory, Laita, "Influence" (ref. 74), 168, 171-174
Gregory, The mathematical writings, ed. William Walton (Cambridge, 1865)
A. R. Forseyth in Royal Society, Proceed- ings, 43 (1895), i-xliii.
81
Whewell, "Report on the recent progress and present condition of the mathematical theories of electricity, magnetism, and heat," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report, 5 (1835), 29-30
Free motion (ref. 68), xvii
Doc- trine of limits (Cambridge, 1838), xiii-xv
Report (ref. 79), 106, 109, 226, 232-233, 240
Glaiser, "Tripos" (ref. 10), 13-15, 19
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 209, 211, 213-216
Papers (ref. 10), 288, 295, 298, 299.
82
Whewell, Free motion (ref. 68), ix
"Apsides" (ref. 61), 189.
83
Whewell to Airy, 2 Mar 1843
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 2, 311- 312.
Airy to Whewell, 14 and 24 Feb 1843, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a200, ff. 48-49
Woodhouse, "Vince's Astronomy" (ref. 19), 82.
84
Whewell, Of a liberal education in general and with particular reference to the leading studies of the University of Cambridge (London, 1845), 62
Free motion (ref. 68), xii.
85
Whewell, An introduction to dynamics (Cambridge, 1832), ii-iv
"State of the mathematical and physical sciences in the University of Oxford," Quarterly journal of education, 4 (1832), 205.
86
Whewell, Free motion (ref. 68), i-xxii, 13-15, 59, 86-231, on i, vi.
87
Ibid., iv
Whewell, Dynamics (ref. 51), iv.
Airy's Tracts
Laplace's Celestial mechanics
Mary Somerville's Mechanism of the heavens (London, 1831)
Free motion (ref. 68), iv-v
Whewell to William Somerville, 2 Dec 1831
Jun 5 1832, Somerville Collection, folder MSW-2, Bodleian Library, Oxford.
88
Airy, Autobiography (ref. 11), 31-33.
89
Airy, Mathematical tracts, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1831).
Dynamics (ref. 51), 27
Tracts, 5, 7, 188, 200, 207.
90
J. M. F. Wright, The private tutor and Cambridge mathematical repository, 2 (1830), 46
Airy, Tracts, 4th ed. (Cambridge, 1858), v-vi
Autobiography (ref. 11), 273.
91
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 71
Free motion (ref. 68), xviii.
Airy to Whewell, 1 Mar, 5 and 24 Oct 1845
3 Feb 1864
Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a200, 58ff, 61, 63, 178.
92
Whewell to Airy, 11 Oct 1839
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 2, 282.
93
Tanner, Register (ref. 12), 474, 499.
94
ref. 14
"University reform" (ref. 9), 185
University education (ref. 16) 9, 22-23.
95
Report (ref. 79), 105, 109, 227, 240
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 213-214
Papers (ref. 10), 299.
96
William Hopkins, Remarks on the mathematical teaching of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1853), 6-15
George Peacock, Observations on the statutes of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1841), 152-157
Whewell to J. D. Forbes, 1 Apr 1841, Forbes Papers, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Scotland
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 89), 207.
97
Whewell, Doctrine of limits (ref. 81), ix, xii, xxvii-xxxii, 21, 29-32.
ibid., 73-108, 130-134
98
Ibid., xviii, 18-21
Whewell, Thoughts on the study of mathematics as a part of a liberal education (Cambridge, 1837), 155-161.
99
View [ref. 19], 87
"Vince's Astronomy" [ref. 19], 73)
ref. 42
100
Young, "On the principle of continuity in reference to certain results of analysis," Cambridge Philosophical Society, Transactions, 8 (1847), 429-440.
101
Whewell, Dynamics (ref. 51), 61-62.
102
Whewell, On the motion of points constrained and restricted and on the motion of a rigid body (Cambridge, 1834), ii-iii
Whewell, Doctrine of limits (ref. 81), 110.
103
Whewell, Architectural note on German churches, 3rd ed. (Cambridge, 1842), xi
Whewell to Airy, 18 Jan 1843
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 2, 307.
104
Airy, Gravitation: An elementary explanation of the principal perturbations in the solar system, 2nd ed. [1884] (Ann Arbor, 1969).
105
Whewell, Doctrine of limits (ref. 81), xi
ibid., 65, 74, 84.
De Morgan, "On divergent series and various points of analysis connected with them," Cambridge Philosophical Society, Transactions, 5(1844), 182-203.
106
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), dedication, 38-77, on 45.
Whewell, On the principles of English university education (London, 1837), 42-53.
107
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 61.
108
Whewell, Doctrine of limits (ref. 81), xii-xiv.
109
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 184-186, 191.
110
Ibid., 199-202.
111
Archiv der Mathematik und Physik, 1 (1841), 34.
112
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 202-204.
113
Ibid., 4-77, 197-200, on 61, 76-77.
114
Ibid., 5-6, 196-204, 228-246.
Whewell to Wilkinson, 26 Dec 1837
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 2, 265-266
Whewell, Doctrine of limits (ref. 81), xiii.
115
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 65.
116
Ibid., 66-68, 71
Gregory, Examples of the processes of the differential and integral calculus (Cambridge, 1841).
117
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 66-69.
118
Ibid., 72-74.
119
Whewell, Principles (ref. 106), 44.
120
Whewell to Herschel, 20 Aug 1845, Herschel Papers (ref. 50), HS 18.172
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 30, 67, 69
Airy to Whewell, 5 Oct 1845, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a200, f. 61.
121
Lacroix, Calculus (ref. 26), iv
Herschel, Examples (ref. 32), 120, 123
Greg- ory, Examples (ref. 116), iii, 121.
Maurice Crosland, "The development of a professional career in sciences in France," Minerva, 13 (1975), 35-57, on 43
Grattan-Guiness, Development (ref. 2), 48
R. Steven Turner, "The growth of professorial research in Prussia, 1818 to 1848: Causes and context," HSPS. 3 (1971), 137-182, on 149.
122
Whewell to Airy, 2 Mar 1843
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 2, 310
Airy to Whewell, 25 Aug and 5 Oct 1845
W. Williamson to Whewell, 16 Mar 1846
R. Potts to Whewell, 18 Mar 1847
Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a200, ff. 60-61
Add. Ms. a64, ff. 62-63
Whewell to Herschel, 20 Aug 1845, Her- schel Papers (ref. 50), HS 18.202.
Whewell's Principles and Liberal education (refs. 106 and 84)
Joseph Romilly, Cambridge diary, 1832-1842, ed. J. P. T. Bury (Cambridge, 1967), 121
Todhunter, Correspondence (ref. 7), 1, 63
Andrew Amos, Four lectures on the advantages of a classical education (Cambridge, 1846), dedication, iv-v, 19, 37, 191-257.
123
Stair Douglas, Life (ref. 7), 402
Whewell, Liberal education, 2nd ed. (Lon- don, 1850), Pt. I, 169-197
124
Whewel, "Proposed alterations in the Questionists Examination, 1845," Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a64, f. 60.
125
Whewell to Forbes, 23 Feb 1846, Forbes Papers (ref. 96), 1846/14.2.
126
Winstanley, Early Victorian Cambridge (ref. 8), 160.
127
Report (ref. 79), 21-23.
128
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 123), Pt. II, 55
R. Potts to Whewell, 18 Mar 1847, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a64, f. 62.
129
Whewell, Conic sections (Cambridge, 1846), iii, 8-9.
130
Goodwin, An elementary course in mathematics, 4th ed. (Cambridge, 1853), 6th ed. (Cambridge, 1866).
131
Ibid., 4th ed., 149, 332-344, 357-358.
132
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 123), Pt. II, 57-61
Report (ref. 79), 234.
133
Goodwin, A collection of problems and examples [for] the Senate-House Exami- nations, 1848-51, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1851), iii
Goodwin, "William Whewell," Mac- millans magazine, 65 (1882), 142
R. Potts to Whewell, 18 Mar 1847, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a64, f. 62
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 123), Pt. I, v, Pt. II, 57.
134
Peacock, Observations (ref. 96), 153-155.
135
Whewell to H. J. Rose, 17 Mar 1819, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), 0.15.47, f. 382
Winstanley, Early Victorian Cambridge (ref. 8), 173-178.
ibid., 177
"The Luca- sian Professors at Cambridge," Nature, 130 (1932), 117-119.
136
Babbage, Passages (ref. 14), 30
"Cambridge System" (ref. 9), 244
Report (ref. 79), 23, 81, 102, 107, 113, 119, 122
Charles A. Bristed, Five years in an English university (New York, 1873), 166.
137
Stair Douglas, Life (ref. 7), 248.
Whewell, Thoughts (ref. 98), 178- 179
Peacock, Observations (ref. 96), 153-155
Whewell, "The professor's certificate," and "The proposed additions to the studies at Cambridge," Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a63, ff. 64, 92.
138
Holmes, "Historical note" (ref. 16), 201.
Report," Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a63, f. 75
Whewell, "Proposed additions" (ref. 137).
139
Holmes, "Historical note" (ref. 16), 199-203
140
Peacock to Whewell, 23 Apr 1843
Hopkins to Whewell, 26 Apr 1843, Whewell Papers (ref. 50), Add. Ms. a64, ff. 49, 56-57
Stair Douglas, Life (ref. 7), 275.
Peacock, Observations (ref. 96), 152-156.
141
Whewell, Liberal education (ref. 84), 207-208.
142
"Report" (ref. 138)
Winstanley, Early Victorian Cambridge (ref. 8), 210-214.
Lucasian Professor, George Stokes (1849)
Plumian Professor, James Challis (1836)
Jacksonian Professor, Robert Willis (1837).
R. Potts to Whewell, Whewell Papers [ref. 50], Add. Ms. a64, f. 62
Challis to Whewell, 2 Apr 1849, ibid., Add. Ms. a202, f. 21
Challis, "Report on the present state of the analytical theory of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics,"
"Supplementary report on the mathematical theory of fluids," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report, 3 (1834), 131- 151
4 (1835), 253-294
5 (1836), 225-252
Hilken, Engineering [ref. 11], 50-65
143
Report (ref. 79), 40, 107, 228.
145
Report (ref. 79), 21, 97, 112-113, 226, 236-239, 244, 256-270, on 112.
146
Grattan-Guiness, Development (ref. 2), 113-120
Report (ref. 79), 267a, 267c, 267d.
147
Ibid., 111, 241-243.
148
Ibid., 224, 234.
149
Ibid., 234.
150
Ibid., 113.
151
Ibid., 112-113, 222.
152
Cambridge University, Solutions of the problems and riders proposed in the Senate-House Examination for 1854 (Cambridge, 1854).
153
Rouse Ball, History (ref. 5), 123
Todhunter, A treatise on the differential cal- culus with numerous examples, 9th ed. (London, 1881), vi, 6.
154
J. J. Thomson, Recollections and reflections (London, 1936), 47.
155
Roth, "Old Cambridge days" (ref. 31), 229-231
Lord Rayleigh, The life of SirJ. J. Thomson (Cambridge, 1943), 9.
156
Russell, The autobiography of Bertrand Russell, 1872-1914 (3 vols., Boston, 1967-69), 2, 90.
157
Roth, "Old Cambridge days" (ref. 31), 231
Hardy, A course of pure mathematics, 10th ed. (Cambridge, 1967), vi
Garnett, "Alice through the convex looking glass," Mathematical gazette, 8 (1919), 297.
158
Moigno, Lecons de calcul différentiel et de calcul intégral [d'après] Cauchy (Paris, 1840-44), v.
159
Frost, Newton's Principia: First book... with notes and illustrations, 5th ed. (London, 1900), vi.
160
Todhunter, Conflict (ref. 13), 222-223
H. A. Morgan, The Mathematical Tri- pos: An inquiry into its influence on a liberal education (Cambridge, 1871), 14.
161
Cambridge University, Solutions of the problems in the Senate-House Examina- tion for 1864 (Cambridge, 1864).
162
Airy, Autobiography (ref. 11), 273-279.
163
Robert H. Silliman, "Fresnel and the emergence of physics as a discipline," HSPS, 4 (1974), 138-144.
164
Lewis Campbell and William Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with a selection from his correspondence [1882] (London, 1969), 357.
Autobiography [ref. 11], 265-266, 273
165
D. A. Winstanley, Later Victorian Cambridge (New York, 1977), 223-235.
166
Joseph Larmor, ed., Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols., New York, 1971), 2, 31.
167
Barbara Giusti Doran, "Origins and consolidation of field theory in nineteenth-century Britain: From the mechanical to the electromagnetic view of nature," HSPS, 6 (1972), 133-260.
168
Kelvin to George Darwin, 12 Nov 1906
Silvanus P. Thompson, The life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs (2 vols., London, 1910), 2, 1133.
169
Romualdas Sviedrys, "The rise of physical science at Victorian Cambridge," HSPS, 2 (1970), 127-151, esp. 149-151
"The rise of physics laboratories in Britain," ibid., 7 (1976), 405-436, esp. 427-436
Paul Forman, John L. Heilbron, and Spencer Weart, "Physics circa 1900: Personnel, funding, and productivity of the academic establishments," ibid., 5 (1975), 32
Cam- bridge University, Cavendish Laboratory, A history of the Cavendish Laboratory (New York, 1910), 81.
170
Whewell, "Report" (ref. 81), 24-27
Peacock, "Report" (ref, 73), 256-257, 343
R. Murphy, "On the general properties of definite integrals," Cambridge Philo- sophical Society, Transactions, 3 (1830), 429-443, on 429
"On the resolution of algebraical equations," ibid., 4 (1833), 353-408, on 353
James D. Forbes, "Disserta- tion sixth: Exhibiting a general view of the progress of mathematical and physical sci- ence principally from 1775-1850," Encyclopedia britannica, 8th ed. (21 vols., Edinburgh, 1853-60), 1 (1853), 187, 803-806, 823, 860
R. L. Ellis, "Biographical memoir of Dun- can Farquharson Gregory," Gregory, Mathematical writings (ref. 80), xi-xxiv
Cajori, Mathematics (ref. 1), 281
Theodore Merz, A history of European thought in the nineteenth century (4 vols., Toronto,' 1965), 1, 241
2, 642, 696, 698-702
I. Grattan- Guiness and J. R. Ravetz, Joseph Fourier: A survey of his life and work (Cambridge, Mass., 1972), vii-viii.
A. P. Iushkevich, "The concept of function up to the middle of the 19th century," Archive for history of exact sciences, 16 (1976), 37-85, on 64-65
John Herivel, Joseph Fourier: The man and the physicist (Oxford, 1975), 216, 223.
171
Herivel, "Aspects of French theoretical physics in the nineteenth century," British journal for the history of science, 3 (1966), 109-132.
Boyer, Mathematics (ref. 1), 538.
172
Olson, Scottish philosophy and British physics, 1750-1880 (Princeton, 1975).
173
Ibid., 3-8, 323-334.
Stanley Goldberg, "In defense of the ether: The British response to Einstein's spe- cial theory of relativity, 1905-1911," HSPS, 2 (1970), 89-125, esp. 108-113.
174
Olson, Scottish philosophy (ref. 172), 193, 235-236, 287
Crosbie Smith, "Mechanical philosophy and the emergence of physics in Britain, 1800-1850," Annals of science, 33 (1976) 3-29, on 25-26
Campbell and Garnett, Maxwell (ref. 164), 106-134.
175
Whewell, An elementary treatise on mechanics, 6th ed. (Cambridge, 1841), 71
Olson, Scottish philosophy (ref. 172), 298.
176
Ibid., 301.
177
Whewell, Doctrine of limits (ref. 81) xii-xv.
Robert Blanché, Le rationalisme de Whewell (Paris, 1935)
George C. Seward, Die theoretische Philosophic William Whewells und der Kantische Einfluss (Tübingen, 1938)
Robert E. Butts, ed., William WhewelVs theory of scientific method (Pittsburg, 1968).
178
Rothblatt, Revolution (ref. 8), 200-213
Sviedrys, "Victorian Cambridge" (ref. 169), 127.
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