Social sciences largely reflect how one’s own society and the world are perceived. The article discusses the development of social sciences in the USSR, and then in Russia, focusing on four disciplines: political science, sociology, international relations, and psychology. The article shows that in the USSR, the theory of activity was developed in the field of psychology on the basis of Marxism and has gained recognition around the world. In the field of international relations in the USSR, the thesis was put forward about the peaceful coexistence of states with different social systems; today, with proper development, this thesis could be productive for understanding the coexistence in the modern world of various civilizations. The article also shows that after 1991, a significant breakthrough was made in terms of the institutionalization of the social sciences. From the subject point of view, social sciences now are not much different from those in other countries. In political science, international relations, and, partly, in sociology, there is an intensive discussion about whether Russia should integrate into global science or build its own social sciences.

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