The Center for Justice and Human Dignity hosted the Rewriting the Sentence II Summit at George Washington Law October 17-18, 2023. This article reviews the presenters’ key comments and the leading insights set forth throughout the Summit regarding sentencing reform and the expansion of alternatives to incarceration. Notably, the sessions included the participation of directly impacted individuals alongside judges, prosecutors, and academics. Keynote speaker Dr. Alisha Moreland-Capuia, M.D. discussed trauma-informed systems change. Various federal and state judges shared their experiences in establishing new alternative to incarceration programs within their courts, exercising judicial discretion, and incorporating compassion and humanity in sentencing. Prosecutors discussed their own experiences of pursuing alternatives to incarceration in appropriate cases, and how their views have evolved. Judge Nancy Gertner presented a critical analysis of the federal sentencing guidelines and their effect on sentencing outcomes. Panelists also discussed current research findings on recidivism reduction, the modern landscape and implications of electronic monitoring, and the multitude of challenges facing jurisdictions in implementing more effective approaches to public safety across all stages of the criminal legal system. The Summit featured speeches from Federal Bureau of Prisons Director Colette Peters and the Chair of the U.S. Sentencing Commission, Hon. Carlton Reeves. Full session recordings can be found at

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