The article describes the oversight needed to ensure that First Step Act measures are implemented faithfully and that conditions of confinement in BOP facilities are identified and addressed. Humane conditions of confinement are a necessary precondition for a rehabilitative environment. With sufficient oversight, BOP can be held accountable for maintaining safe and humane environments that enable incarcerated populations to make the most of educational, vocational, substance use treatment, and other self-betterment activities. This in turn holds promise for reducing recidivism rates for those who exit BOP.

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