This paper examines the political mobilization of tribal identities in north-eastern India. Using examples from Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh, the paper suggests that more attention needs to be paid to domestic politics within the Indian state which have contributed to the mobilization of tribal peoples into highly politicized ethnic groups. The paper will explore the impact of government policies in these hill states and the role of political elites in such mobilization.

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