For all intent and purposes the United States of America in 1927 was an apartheid state. The Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1896 determined that the best social policy for this nation to pursue was one which required racial separation. The Plessy decision essentially capped a series of Supreme Court decisions which underscored the destruction of Reconstruction and the return of “states rights” to southern governments. Decisions like the Slaughter House Cases (1872) and the Civil Rights Cases (1883) gave clear evidence of the federal government's hasty retreat from serving as an advocate for the civil rights of African Americans.

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