To disagree with the author's central theme that institutional racism is the principal deterrent to social, economic, and political equality of the races in America would be to ignore centuries of American history in which racial minorities have been oppressed and denied equality of rights and opportunities. Even further, one must agree with the author's argument that institutional racism is merely the manifestation of “beliefs held so tenaciously that they guide behavior spontaneously by excluding any process which call them into question,” while simultaneously purporting to be open to the individual, irrespective of race, gender or age.

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