Boko Haram insurgency is the most devastating experience encountered during Nigeria’s fourth republic. It is therefore imperative to investigate the root causes of Boko Haram insurgency in the country. To achieve the objective of the study, a total of ninety members of the Joint Task Force (JTF) operating in Maiduguri in Borno State were sampled through the use of a self-structured questionnaire, and key informants were interviewed in thirty-four cases to concretize data generated through the questionnaire. The study discovered that cultural practices (x̄=3.311), high rates of illiteracy (x̄=3.167), political interests of the elites (x̄=3.156), foreign influence (x̄=3.144), and bad governance (x̄=3.078) were the root causes of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Thus, it is recommended that cultural practices capable of provoking violence should be reviewed and reshaped; leaders should be held accountable for their actions; quality and access to education should be provided; citizenship consciousness on leadership issues should be activated, and Nigeria’s foreign policy principles concerning her neighbors should be redefined to determine how the country will be looked upon in this critical stage of its democratic development.

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