Hmong Americans, who came from a pre-literate society and rural background, went through many acculturation barriers and have had many successes between the time they first arrived in 1975 and the year 2000. Their first decade was preoccupied with their struggle to overcome cultural shock and acculturation difficulties. The second decade is their turning point to be new Americans, beginning to run for political office, establish business enterprises, achieve in education, and reduce their high rate of unemployment and welfare participation. Hmong Americans in 2000 appeared to have achieved much, yet have some serious challenges still ahead.
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Kou Yang; Becoming American: The Hmong American Experience. Ethnic Studies Review 1 January 2001; 24 (1): 58–84. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/esr.2001.24.1.58
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