Tidal marshes are important recycling areas for biogenic silica (BSi) and macro- and microelements at the land–sea interface and are key locations for examining the decomposition process of wetland plant litter. In this study, in situ decomposition experiments were conducted with Phragmites australis , Cyperus malaccensis , and Spartina alterniflora in the Min River estuary wetland. Litterbags of 0.2-mm mesh size were used to evaluate the litter decomposition process and residual values of BSi and macro- and microelements, including C, N, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Al, Mn, and Fe over 520 days. The litter decomposition rate significantly differed among species in the following order: C. malaccensis (0.005 d –1 ) > S. alterniflora (0.004 d –1 ) > P. australis (0.003 d –1 ) with BSi release rates of 98.64%, 96.75%, and 97.23%, respectively. Although there were net releases of BSi, C, and N from the three litter species, continuous decrease in the BSi/(C, N) ratio indicated that BSi was removed from the litter much faster than C and N. The accumulation index results showed that Cu, Pb, Al, and Fe were net-accumulated in the litter, whereas Cd, Mn, Cr, and Zn were predominantly released during litter decay. Pearson’s correlation analysis results showed that the amounts of N, Cu, Cd, Pb, Al, and Fe in the litter restrained BSi release with a significant negative correlation. These findings in the Min River estuary have important implications for geochemical cycles within wetland systems and the transport processes of potential nutrients out of the system.