Concerned with the heteronormative nature of education, we engage with queer theory and pedagogy to destabilize heteronormative constructs. Guided by arts-based educational research (ABER) and ethnodramatic practices, we stage the lived teaching experiences of educators who challenge heteronormativity while preparing their students for an elementary school musical production. We discover that creating opportunities for students to delve into varied costumes, themes, and characters can strengthen or transform their self-perception, and can embolden them to uncover facets of their identity. Moreover, our inquiry demonstrates how queering curriculum and pedagogy can provide more inclusive opportunities for all students as they engage in arts learning experiences.

As advocates of social justice within educational institutions, we believe that social justice transcends the confines of a single subject. It is an ideology that should scaffold all academic subjects. Social justice can act as a foundation for curricula, teaching methods, and classroom interactions so students can learn to recognize and challenge injustices in all areas of their lives. We identify as LGBTQ educators who seek to better understand and explicate the role and power of inclusivity in education. As scholar-artists, our objective is to facilitate a transformative shift that promotes inclusivity in schools through the arts. Henry is a teacher-educator of modern languages, social studies, and inclusive education. He works toward creating inclusive and welcoming classroom environments where all students feel valued and are able to achieve success. Matthew is also a teacher-educator who focuses on elementary school music education. His elementary school music program is rooted in student-centered learning experiences that support all learners by encouraging them to navigate their own journey with music.

In the midst of preparing for a musical production, Matthew begins to recognize oppressive heteronormative patterns. Heteronormativity is a term used to designate how heterosexuality is constituted as the norm in sexuality, and the accepted status of heterosexuality occurs over time through a process of normalization. Matthew becomes cognizant of how school productions reinforce traditional gender roles, expectations, and relationships based on binary notions of male and female: for instance, scripts that include gender stereotyping centered on robust masculine roles and marginalized supporting female roles, and costumes that reflect perceived gender identification. Such elements reflect noninclusive practices that can inadvertently harm students by limiting their perspective to a heteronormative-exclusive understanding of identity and knowledge. Those who identify outside of binary notions of male and female may find themselves underrepresented and misrepresented in such learning experiences. With the aforementioned in mind, we are concerned with (1) education being predominantly heteronormative and (2) the negligible amount of queer curricula and access to diverse queer pedagogies. In the current inquiry, we (Henry and Matthew) explore the possibilities of critically questioning and challenging traditional gender norms and expectations, and examine the effects of queering a schoolwide musical production.

Many educational settings constitute and perpetuate discrimination toward those who identify as LGBTQ through the policing of hegemonic discourses of heterosexuality and gender (Robinson & Ferfolja, 2008).1 To ensure clarity, it is essential to address certain tensions pertaining to the use of the LGBTQ acronym and its many variants. According to Monro (2020), “LGBTQ in its entirety, is universalist as it groups lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender people, and queers together, potentially implying that their concerns are shared” (p. 317). The inclusiveness of the term “LGBTQ” signifies its collective nature, yet this broad categorization raises concerns regarding the potential essentialization of individual identities and the unique experiences associated with each subgroup. The attempt to encapsulate such a diverse range of identities under a single umbrella term can lead to dissatisfaction and challenges in adequately representing the nuances of each distinct category. Mayo (2017) supports this viewpoint, asserting “we [need to] know the acronym LGBTQ is insufficient, frustrating, and exclusionary and know that the perpetual additions to the acronym do not reflect how subjectivities shift in context, how categories emerge and are disputed, and so on” (p. 21). It is important to recognize the limitations of broadly encompassing acronyms that do not account for contextual fluidity and the ongoing contestation and emergence of identity categories. Thus, we reflect on the potential for education to support thinking about “differences across the expanding LGBTQ+ acronym and cross-cutting intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, class, language, region, disability, and more” (Mayo, 2017, p. 74).

Working toward educational justice requires destabilizing and resisting epistemic injustice through expansive views of what counts as legitimate knowledge, as well as who gets to participate in the creation and exchange of knowledge (Quantz & Buell, 2019). That being said, there is a dominant discourse in society that assumes and promotes heterosexuality as the norm. This discourse constructs children as heterosexual citizens, reinforcing a heteronormative status quo (see Edelman, 2004; Robinson & Ferfolja, 2008; Stockton, 2009). In other words, heteronormativity is the primary societal narrative that normalizes heterosexuality and perpetuates the idea that it is the default or expected orientation. This is harmful because it can marginalize and exclude individuals who do not identify as heterosexual. Heteronormativity is “encoded in language, in institutional practices and the encounters of everyday life” (Epstein & Johnson, 1994, p. 198), and through our inquiry, we seek to contribute to the growing corpus of research that disrupts the dominant heteronormative and cisgender traditions in education research (for example, Brown, 2005; Quantz & Buell, 2019; Viesca et al., 2014).

In British Columbia (where our inquiry is situated), the government has embedded into the curriculum the inclusion of sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) education within age-appropriate contexts. The aim is to create safe and supportive school environments for individuals with diverse sexual orientations and gender identities while addressing homophobia and heterosexism. However, the implementation of SOGI education can pose challenges and confusion for teachers. To effectively navigate these challenges, a comprehensive understanding of sexual orientation and gender identity is essential. Sexual orientation pertains to a person’s lasting emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction to individuals of the same or different gender, encompassing categories such as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (Cook, 2021). On the other hand, gender identity refers to an individual’s deeply-felt sense of their own gender, which may or may not align with the sex assigned to them at birth (p. 2). Sexual orientation revolves around attraction, while gender identity focuses on an individual’s self-perception and understanding of gender—that is, recognizing the continuum between cisgender and transgender. Even with required SOGI education, the reality is that its implementation does not mean that homophobia and heteronormativity within schools have been resolved, as written policy may not translate into actual practice.

Who we become is greatly influenced by social structures and institutions, which makes some ways of being more possible than others (Davies, 1989). During childhood (ages 6–11), the most significant relationship for children involves their school and neighborhood—where teachers and classmates play an important role, and parents are no longer viewed as complete authorities (Erikson, 1977). Understanding their own and others’ genders greatly occupies children’s attention in their early years (Davies, 1989). During this time in life, care and possibility is vital for children to actively and effectively negotiate their identities (Yanko, 2019). While children construct their gender in concert with other aspects of personal identity, they engage in policing of the gender performances of others within boundaries of what is widely considered masculine and feminine (Alloway, 1995; Robinson, 2005). The social place of the body and the ways in which children conceptualize themselves is underscored through the schooling process (Alloway, 1995). Doing so depicts heteronormative patterns that materialize as binaries in cisgender relationships—for example, blocks for boys and dolls for girls. Heteronormativity often enforces rigid gender norms, where children are expected to conform to stereotypical gender roles and expressions. This can limit the freedom of expression for children who do not conform to traditional gender expectations, leading to social injustice and discrimination.

Elementary school curricula can be hegemonic. For instance, a drama curriculum that neglects or stereotypes fosters an inequitable experience for students who do not view themselves accurately represented. In exposing a curriculum to mindful criticism, curricular knowledge can expand and evolve to become inclusive of LGBTQ persons. Nonetheless, from our teaching experiences, we have noticed that many educators avoid queering curriculum and pedagogy. If elementary teachers do engage with queer curriculum and pedagogy, learning tends to occur only in lessons concerning family structures (Sapp, 2010; Souto-Manning & Hermann-Wilmarth, 2008), which illuminates a lack of consideration for LGBTQ issues in daily learning experiences. With the above in mind, we seek to challenge, disrupt, and (re)imagine the established rigidity of sex and gender categorizations in learning experiences. Our aim in using the term “queer” as a verb is to empower and highlight the actions associated with subverting societal norms, as to queer is “to resist or elide categorization, to disavow binaries…and to proffer potentially productive modes of resistance against hegemonic structures of power” (Johnson, 2008, p. 166).

In order to provide young learners with the opportunity to explore and play beyond heteronormative and cisgender expectations, it is essential to promote equity, diversity, and inclusion in pedagogy and instruction. We reflect on aspects of queer theory to assist in dislocating hegemonic structures to (re)focus on inclusivity through the arts. Queer theory questions traditional notions of identity, sexuality, and gender, particularly heteronormativity—the belief that heterosexuality is the natural, moral, or normal expression of sexuality (Sullivan, 2003). We seek an “epistemological challenge to ‘universalizing’ or ‘minoritizing’ ways of thinking about sexuality and gender, drawing attention to the ambiguous operations of power as a disciplinary force in the construction of identities” (Rahman, 2010, p. 952). We also turn to queer pedagogies that can be utilized to explore and interrogate the role of identities in the classroom and the nature of curriculum and pedagogy (Luhmann, 2018). The goal of queer pedagogies is to uncover and disrupt the hidden curricula of heteronormativity while promoting classroom landscapes and experiences that create safety for all students. We believe that unlearning heteronormativity is a process, just as learning about the realities of queer lived experiences is also a process. This requires deliberate and intentional effort to decenter and unsettle pervasive heteronormativity.

Queer theory reinforces the notion that identities are not fixed or stable as they appear to be shifting, contradictory, dynamic, and constructed (Robinson, 2005). The performing arts have the ability to make the impossible possible through imagination and role play. They can support students to question heteronormative constructs and the idea that all identities are enacted performances. In drama education, teachers can defy traditional gender norms in casting by offering more inclusive opportunities for students to portray roles regardless of their gender identity. Educators can also utilize scripts that explore LGBTQ themes and experiences, and foster empathy through improvisational activities that include LGBTQ perspectives. Eisner (2002) believes that the arts celebrate multiple perspectives and that there are multiple ways to see and interpret the world (p. 83). Queering the performing and visual arts in elementary schools can enable students to tap into their imaginative capacities to envision the seemingly impossible as an expression of hope, thereby disrupting and transforming conventional perspectives. We reflect on how queer pedagogies, guided by queer theory, emphasize a multiplicity of identities and worldviews encapsulated by the term “queer” (Potvin, 2020). These include multiple ways of knowing, being, and understanding the world and supporting a proliferation of such identities in perpetuity. As our inquiry unfolds, we will seek guidance from such practices to scaffold the ways in which we apply queer theory against the perils of heteronormativity in learning experiences.

In line with the objectives of queer methodologies, the arts can serve as a means for confronting ideological oppression. Specifically, theater plays a pivotal role in rendering dominant social and cultural assumptions visible (for example, Kinky Boots, For Colored Girls, and Pipeline). The musical Rent brought the stories of young LGBTQ people during the AIDS epidemic to the stage. This production captured the attention of many when it first debuted on Broadway, due to the accurate portrayal of the experiences, stigma, and oppression of the LGBTQ community during this period. As the arts can assist researchers portray and illuminate untold stories (Cole & Knowles, 2001, p. 211), we turn to arts-based educational research (ABER). ABER adapts the tenets of the creative arts in education research in order to make that research publicly accessible, evocative, and engaged (Leavy, 2015). This practice has the potential to “interact with and disrupt stagnant, destructive and nonprogressive ideas, socio-cultural systems, and hegemonies through creative and transformative forays into deterritorialization” (Gerber & Siegesmund, 2022, p. 149). Through ABER, we aim to engage with artistic processes and products that challenge us to see things from a different perspective, and to make deeper and more complex understandings of the lived experiences of teachers who confront heteronormativity while preparing for a musical production. This involves destabilizing oppressive dominant narratives, ultimately aiming to create an environment of inclusivity. When institutional oppression is defied, students from the dominant culture are less likely to absorb hegemonic ideologies and initiate interpersonal oppression (Rivers, 2020). Doing so enables marginalized students to see their identities institutionally reinforced and lessens their vulnerability to internalizing oppressive self-ideologies (p. 7).

There are numerous artistic practices within ABER that can form and inform an inquiry process (for example, music, dance, theater, visual arts, photography, and creative writing). We engage with the ethnodrama to guide our inquiry, as we believe the theater provides a means and practice to support and challenge ideologic oppression. The ethnodrama is solidly rooted in nonfictional, researched reality—it is a practice of writing a play script based on interview transcripts, journal entries, and personal memories (Saldaña, 2005, p. 2). For us, writing a play script can afford deeper engagement with meaning-making to confront and negotiate heteronormativity in the classroom. A central aspect of ABER is its tendency to spark more questions than it resolves. Our goal is to provoke others to ask additional questions about the events occurring in the script. By doing so, we aim to expand the existing dialogue focused on challenging, changing, and disrupting heteronormativity.

Guided by ethnodramatic practices, we script-write educators’ experiences in developing an inclusive elementary school music production. As ethnodramatists are not storytellers but story re-tellers (Saldaña, 2005, p. 20), we do not attempt to duplicate what transpired, but creatively and strategically work with notes and memories to (re)story lived teaching experiences. We draw from various documentation artifacts—handwritten notes, audio recordings, photographs, and video clips—to develop a creative nonfictional-style ethnodramatic script based on the experiences of teachers in producing the school musical. All the while, we attempt to stay true to the essence of what was said or captured, and aim to represent the discourse and learning that unfolds in an honest manner (Beare & Belliveau, 2008, p. 146). All identifying characteristics of the teachers are removed. Consent has been provided, and pseudonyms are used in place of actual names to make identities anonymous.

ABER does not aim for generalizability. Instead, it values the emotional impact and aesthetic resonance of human experiences. It embraces inclusivity, diversity, and interdisciplinary perspectives while challenging dominant narratives (Gerber & Siegesmund, 2022, p. 153). In composing our ethnodrama, we seek to unsettle the space between aesthetics and the accepted so-called heteronormative norms. We aim to awaken perception through the arts to provide different entrances for stakeholders in education to suspend their own beliefs and be open to challenging the heteronormative and cisgender paradigms of gender and sexual orientation. Alongside that, Boal (2000) posits, “It is not the place of the theatre to show the correct path, but only to offer the means by which all possible paths may be examined” (p. 141). Thus, we reflect on the dialogic nature of ABER that possesses verisimilitude, which is a truth-likeness that induces a feeling that the described experience is lifelike, believable, and possible (Gouzouasis, 2008; Yanko, 2021, pp. 36–37). Verisimilitude enables others to immerse themselves in the script and read it as if they are a participant observing the experience. To seek verisimilitude, we present our data using elements of story, such as plot, dialogue, conflict, characters, and setting, while trying to preserve the authenticity of the experience.

The ethnodrama permits a rethinking of attitudes surrounding marginalized populations by allowing opportunities for change to occur (Tomczyk, 2020). Within the context of LGBTQ research in education, Perkins (2012) uses ethnodrama to uncover and depict a lack of leadership in support of social justice in schools, and Krack (2020) turns to the ethnodrama for its potential to include many LGBTQ voices. Given the critical edge of this practice, some researchers utilize it as a means to tell stories about distressing experiences in order to promote awareness and change (Greytak et al., 2013; Sweet & Carlson, 2018). The emotional impact of ethnodrama enables researchers to expose and disrupt stereotypes and oppressive environments, build bridges across differences, and foster empathy (Leavy, 2015, p. 187). Tomczyk (2020) proposes the term ethnodramatic inqueery to foster a queer paradigm. His research raises queer issues for the wider queer community that may not be recognized through other forms of traditional research. Although Tomczyk uses the ethnodramatic inqueery to ground his research in queer theory, we postulate that an ethnodramatic practice is already situated within queer theory, as it supports scholar-artists to confront ideological oppression by dramatically portraying dominant social and cultural assumptions.

Synopsis:

The script follows the journey of three educators who are producing an elementary school musical.2 Elementary school productions tend to take place in winter or spring. This year the production falls just before the winter holiday. The production consists of two scenes. The first is set in a conventional classroom where the three teachers gather to develop the script. As the script unfolds, Mr. Lambert provides a provocation of creating an LGBTQ character. From there, discourse emerges that brings light to heteronormativity woven into literature, fictional characters, and school productions. Between the first and second scenes of the script, a temporal gap transpires, as it takes time to break ingrained systematic oppression and requires a deliberate effort to confront established norms. The second scene emerges in the same space and involves the same educators coaching imaginary student actors. They provide insight into the challenges involved in developing an LGBTQ character named Dasher. This scene also showcases the coaching by the teachers to help the students come into their characters. An original instrumental score accompanies both scenes to evoke a sentiment through music as the plot emerges and develops.

Cast:

Mr. Lambert is a middle-aged accomplished music teacher. He identifies as a cisgender, gay male of European descent. Mr. Lambert is a reserved person, but can be opinionated. Mr. Lambert is the director of the musical, who takes his production seriously. Ms. Lim is a seasoned third-grade teacher who identifies as a cisgender, heterosexual Asian-Canadian mother of two children. Ms. Lim is conservative, but supportive in that she is mindful of parents and their beliefs and values, as well as her students and their needs. She has a background in literature and acting, and enjoys helping with school productions. Ms. Jones is a newer teacher in her 20s. She is an enthusiastic and sarcastic kindergarten teacher who strives to keep up to date with new pedagogies and approaches, and has a passion for social justice issues in her classroom. Ms. Jones identifies as a cisgender, heterosexual woman. She has a background in acting and dance and enjoys writing scripts and seeing them come to life through the students.

                      * * * *

Scene 1: The possibilities of a Santa beyond existing binaries

[The set is minimally designed to avoid scene changes. Three chairs rest in a semicircle to the right side of center stage with a white board upstage. Left stage is empty and remains dark until Scene 2. The first musical cue plays as a spotlight slowly illuminates stage right.3 Ms. Jones and Ms. Lim are sitting, and Mr. Lambert is standing at the white board.]

Mr. Lambert:

What are some ideas for our schoolwide winter musical? We did a cooking show last year and a pirate production the year before.

Ms. Lim:

Perhaps global warming. Santa could come up with a brilliant way of reducing air pollution.

Ms. Jones:

(Interjects sarcastically) So Santa is going to trade in Donner and Prancer for a Tesla.

[Mr. Lambert and Ms. Lim roll their eyes.]

Mr. Lambert:

All jokes aside. It’s a theme that we haven’t done.

[He jots down the word environment on the board. After a moment, he writes the word characters on the board.]

Ms. Jones:

Some of our stock characters have been the Grinch, Frosty, Elves, Santa, Mrs. Claus—.

Mr. Lambert:

(Abruptly cuts in) We tend to avoid Mrs. Claus. She cultivates a stereotypical housewife.

Ms. Lim:

We have made this character progressive in the past. Remember how she played an important role in saving Santa in the pirate production, and she was the CEO of Santa’s workshop in another show.

Mr. Lambert:

What if there was no Mrs. Claus, but a Mr. Claus?

Ms. Jones:

You mean have a girl play the role of Santa? There were a few times in the past where we cast females for the role of Santa, but that worked out because of the beard and the costume.

Mr. Lambert:

No, I mean Mr. and Mr. Santa Claus.

[They reflect on the idea for a moment.]

Ms. Jones:

Having a LGBTQ character could showcase inclusivity, but some of the parents may not take to Santa being gay.

Mr. Lambert:

But not all LGBTQ individuals identify as gay. You need to remember that women who are attracted to other women identify as lesbians.

Ms. Jones:

(Sarcastically) I thought all LGBTQ people are gay.

[Mr. Lambert rolls his eyes and lets out a frustrated sigh.]

Ms. Lim:

I know there are books in my classroom that showcase LGBTQ persons, but those involve original characters. The authors aren’t changing the sexuality or gender of a character that already exists. I think that may confuse kids and will not be well received by many parents.

Mr. Lambert:

Have you not heard of the story book called “Santa’s Husband” that tells the story of a black Santa, his white husband, and their life in the North Pole?4

Ms. Lim:

I never heard of it. I’ll have to look it up. There are other aspects of a production that can support inclusivity without altering people’s perception of Santa. Last year the girls in my class were supposed to wear dresses and costume jewelry and the boys were to wear ties and top hats. To mix it up, some of the girls decided to wear top hats and a few boys wore jewelry and feather boas.

Mr. Lambert:

Avoiding conventional ideals of what boys and girls ought to wear is a good thing, but for today we should focus on the main cast and decide if one should be an LGBTQ-identified person.

Ms. Jones:

Would a lesbian Santa be better received than a gay one? The character doesn’t have to be male; the important thing is that this person spreads joy, happiness, and sharing. There are already female Santa characters in various cultures, like La Befana in Italy. They just aren’t LGBTQ characters.

Ms. Lim:

A straight Hallmark Santa exists for many families. I fear parents in our community may push back if we alter their perception.

Mr. Lambert:

(Frustratedly) This reflects heteronormativity in our teaching, learning, and musical productions. Santa doesn’t need to be a jolly old man with a loving and supportive wife. Come on! It’s the 21st century. Curriculum involves teaching about the diversity of families and people in our commun—.

Ms. Lim:

(Abruptly cuts in) The plot can steer clear of Santa’s personal relationship and just focus on characters that portray saving the environment. I struggle to see an LGBTQ relationship adding much to the plot.

[The bell abruptly rings.]

Ms. Jones:

Let’s meet again tomorrow to work on the characters.

[The three pack up their lunches and walk off stage as the lights dim.]

Scene 2: Beyond culturally coded binaries

[Scene 2 opens with holiday theme music to set the tone.5 Mr. Lambert and Ms. Lim are seated on two chairs. They are watching stage left, which is set up as an open space where the imaginary students are practicing their lines of the script. Two spotlights slowly illuminate both sides of the stage. After a few moments, Ms. Jones walks onto the set and sits next to the other two actors.]

Ms. Jones:

(Whispers) Sorry I am late. How is the scene coming along?

Mr. Lambert:

(Quietly) Most lines are memorized, but the student actors still need to get into their characters.

Ms. Lim:

They are doing pretty well, despite rehearsals only starting a week ago. The late start was nerve-wracking and frustrating. All of our extra meetings—.

Mr. Lambert:

(Cuts in) And pushback by our principal to change the script at the last minute to reflect traditional gender roles and relationships based on binary notions of male and female. Those changes really cut into our practicing time.

Ms. Jones:

Talk about professional autonomy and social justice. Though we weren’t able to have a queer protagonist, we were able to create a LGBTQ-inspired secondary character (With jazz hands) named Dasher.

Mr. Lambert:

Inspired isn’t the word I would use. (Shakes head) More like closeted. Dasher cannot identify as LGBTQ in the performance, but can we give him underlying gay attributes? The typecasting doesn’t sit well with me.

Ms. Lim:

We have to start somewhere. Our parent community is very conservative and we are limited by what we can do. Think of Dasher as a start to more progressive changes in our school productions. Anyway, we still have two more weeks before the concert and need to focus on the cast and their lines.

[Ms. Lim directs their attention to stage right and the actors watch the imaginary actors perform for a moment. Then she stands and walks to the stage left with a copy of the script.]

Ms. Lim:

Marie, you are a famous reindeer inventor who develops a new environmentally friendly engine for all types of vehicles, including Santa’s sleigh. Your character tends to be shy, but gets excited in this scene. Try your part like this.

[Ms. Lim presents closed-off body language with gazed nervous eyes. She holds this pose for a moment and transforms to excitement.]

Ms. Lim:

Oh yes! I am very happy that you are interested in my engine.

Mr. Lambert:

Take note of Ms. Lim’s nervous stance and facial expression. That needs to be there before you get excited.

[Ms. Lim walks back to join the other two. The three engage in blocking as they watch the imaginary acting. After a few moments, Mr. Lambert takes the script from Ms. Lim and walks over to stage right.]

Mr. Lambert:

The character of Dasher is big-headed. He thinks he is better than all of the other reindeer. Try reading the lines with confidence and showiness. (lifts chest proudly and uses a campy tone and demeanor) Oh neigh, neigh! The only reason Marie’s engine works is because of my candy cane fuel.6

Ms. Jones:

Mr. Lambert uses lots of colorful body language with the hands and hips to strut his stuff and move like he is better than all the others in the lab.

[Mr. Lambert engages with blocking by moving to the side to watch the imaginary actors for a moment.]

Mr. Lambert:

That is better, but more swagger in your arm. Oh neigh, neigh! Then a hand with the palm out to Marie to put her in her place. Try that again.

[Mr. Lambert walks back to his seat to join Ms. Lim and Ms. Jones.]

Ms. Lim:

Much better. Do that line again and continue the scene.

[Ms. Lim begins to hum, sings, and bops to the riff of “Tis the season to be jolly” from the song “Deck the Halls.” However, she only sings the tune on the word Dasher and keeps on repeating this word for all the notes. The other two actors look at Ms. Lim with perplexity.]

Mr. Lambert:

I see someone has been practicing their song for the production with their class.

Ms. Lim:

It’s very catchy and has been in my head all day. The kids sing it at recess, they sing it when lining up, and even at centers.

[Ms. Lim looks toward the imaginary acting on stage left and notices that they have stopped as a result of her disruption.]

Ms. Lim:

Oh, sorry. Please continue that line again.

Mr. Lambert:

(Whispers) We should focus on the actors right now.

[The three actors redirect their attention to the imaginary student actors on stage left and seem impressed with their progress.]

Mr. Lambert:

Finally! Dasher seems to be getting into her character. It’s her body language and attitude that works here. At least we were able to showcase a more diverse representation through this more inclusive interpretation of Dasher.

Ms. Lim:

It really draws our attention to her and makes us think about the potentials of showcasing outside of heteronormativity. I like the swagger as she confronts Marie.

[The teachers continue watching the imaginary actors. The lights and music dim to end the scene.]

In educational institutions, the propagation of two genders evokes a gender binary of discrimination that promotes heteronormative stereotypes. Our script brings light to the struggles we endured in attempting to create an LGBTQ protagonist, and the ensuing dialogue stemming from this effort reflects how gender is a much “more complicated topic when you start taking it apart and breaking it down” (Stryker, 2008, p. 7). The progression of our inquiry revealed the pressure from the parental community to conform to traditional gender norms, as we were cautioned against altering the conventional portrayal of the Hallmark Santa character. As our inquiry unfolded, it began to illuminate gender attribution, which is firmly based on a heteronormative stance. For instance, some may perceive a biological female wearing a red suit and white beard as a man because that image aligns with the male gender stereotype. That ideology is misogynistic, as it suggests a boy cannot play the role of Mrs. Claus, but a girl playing the role of Santa is acceptable.

In lieu of creating an LGBTQ protagonist, we were able to create a supporting LGBTQ character named Dasher. However, we could only provide undertones for Dasher as an LGBTQ person. As the rehearsals for the production unfolded, we sought to move away from conventional heteronormative themes in children’s literature by providing guidance for the actors to embrace their characters and work with them to make them their own. The script also insinuated that each class was presented with similar learning experiences that fostered inclusivity and autonomy. For instance, classes learned songs centered on empathy, sharing, and kindness. As the songs progressed, the children took ownership of them, and, in doing so, they sought to navigate away from stereotypical gender costumes—they wanted to wear what they felt was right for them. Doing so reflects how the body is perceived as “an entity that is invested with meaning” that can be visible and invisible, personal and political, privileged or marginalized (Kosut & Moore, 2010, p. 1).

Educators have a role in disrupting and destabilizing the ongoing heteronormative discourses in schools. Queering aspects of the school musical empowered us to critically analyze and provoke the working paradigms of school productions by awakening a production of possibility. Our inquiry aimed to inspire educators to cultivate a relational space for creating, teaching, learning, and researching in a constant state of becoming. We wanted to create an egalitarian space for students to become aware of their identities and develop them through the fostering of queer pedagogies and practices. However, we were fraught with various challenges that caused the rehearsals to be delayed. Alongside that, the notion that nonheteronormative identities should only be discussed in family lessons rather than integrated into daily learning experiences also arose. Nonetheless, as the musical progressed, we continuously reflected on Freire’s (1979) belief that freedom and emancipation in education can be attained through a praxis of reflecting and acting upon our world in order to transform it (p. 86).

A queer curriculum aims to challenge heteronormativity and promote inclusivity and acceptance for LGBTQ members. It involves going beyond the addition of LGBTQ content by enabling supportive learning spaces for all students to feel valued and represented. That being said, Castro and Sujak (2014) posit the need for an LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum to expand outside of classroom spaces, as an LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum is most effective when it can be generalized beyond the walls of the classroom. Thus, rather than focusing on a specific subject or grade, the learning that occurred as the entire school community prepared for the musical production involved spaces in and outside of the classroom, which were able to support and embrace a variety of layered understandings.

To provide opportunities for the students to engage in social advocacy and promote a positive school climate, we reflected on four characteristics put forth by Morris (2018) for those working with a queer curriculum: (1) digress from mainstream official discourse; (2) challenge the status quo by queerly reading texts or queer texts; (3) understand that curriculum is gendered, political, historical, racial, classed, and aesthetic; and (4) see themselves as a co-learner with students (p. 284). Morris’s four characteristics did not emerge all at once, or in a specific timeline, as arts learning experiences often embrace a welcomed messy canvas of colorful interpretations and creativity (Yanko, 2021). During the initial stages of the production, the first three characteristics came to fruition, laying the foundation for a queer-inclusive curriculum that could be integrated into daily learning experiences. For example: As we wrote the script for the children, we sought to break away from conventional gender norms and expectations; we challenged the status quo by trying to instill queer characters into the script; and we were able to call attention to the gendered, political, and historical attributes of curriculum through discourse and efforts to disrupt these aspects of the production. The fourth characteristic surfaced distinctly during class learning experiences and rehearsals as we worked with students to support them in finding themselves and their characters. In working with a queer curriculum, we see the potential of LGBTQ-inclusive material to allow students to make authentic connections between their lives and the learning materials.

Queer pedagogy encourages educators to ask questions that highlight and challenge the limitations of hegemonic and normative ideas about gender and sexuality. We sought to defy the boundary between those who are excluded and included through the provocation of a gay Santa as the protagonist in the school production, which illustrates how queer pedagogy can make space to dismantle and reconstruct cisgender norms, pushing against conventional perceptions of gender identity. We turned to the theater, as drama can establish a space that enables participants to make connections, rehearse skills, problematize content, and envision new alternatives. As we coached and supported the student playing Dasher, a queer identity emerged that confronted conservative notions of feminine and masculine conventions in drama curriculum. Moreover, as we worked with the students to enhance their theatrical abilities, it was essential for everyone to establish interpersonal relationships for our interactions to be authentic and heartfelt. In such learning experiences, it is imperative for everyone to cultivate trust and mutual empowerment.

Eisner (2002) believes that “education is the process of learning to create ourselves and it is what the arts, both as a process and as the fruits of this process, promote” (p. 3). We share his belief and reflect on the possibilities of the arts to support a journey for young learners to construct who they are. The power of drama is not necessarily to encourage students to attempt to understand what it is like to be LGBTQ, as that amplifies heteronormative binary notions. Rather, drama in education settings has the potential to support students to find the unique or queer aspects of themselves. In place of walking in someone else’s shoes and trying to understand what it might mean to be LGBTQ, drama can offer a model for participants to try on many costumes to understand how these elements reinforce or alter their own sense of self (Keenan & Hot Mess, 2020). Such learning experiences can provide opportunities for students to experiment with the feeling of how and why seemingly arbitrary changes of clothing and behavior influence how they perceive and are perceived by the world (p. 454).

The questions and problems that ABER addresses go beyond the tangible or the obvious and into the realm of the invisible—the unseen and inaccessible forces that drive and resonate with human behavior (Gerber & Siegesmund, 2022, p. 155). A foundation of ABER enabled us to challenge school productions that reinforce traditional gender roles, expectations, and relationships based on binary notions of male and female. This groundwork sparked our creativity to explore the possibilities of using the ethnodrama to guide our inquiry. The aim of script-writing our ethnodrama was to evoke a call to action to induce a continuous state of movement that was not about arrival, but about lingering within the emerging, unforeseen, and surprising events that it provoked.

Addressing social justice issues in education is crucial for fostering an equitable and more just learning environment. Yet, as we aimed to nurture inclusivity, we uncovered tensions that we sought to accentuate as elements of suspense in the ethnodrama. Thus, many artistic elements were taken into account to elicit a discord of diverse values, power dynamics, disparities, emotional investment, and resistance to change. Evoking suspense can captivate an audience and lead them on an immersive journey of learning and embracing research that demands attention (Gerber & Siegesmund, 2022). In doing so, ABER becomes highly effective in unsettling, revealing, and confronting heteronormativity in a transformative way that can potentially reshape our perceptions and responses to deeply ingrained systemic challenges (p. 151).

The ethnodrama is a written expression of lived experiences that is meant to be performed, as the human dimension is a vital aspect of the performing arts. It opens a door to allow for empathetic power, whereby the performance becomes a shared context that the audience and performers “intimately construct and relate to because of their own emotional link to the topic of the research/performance” (Mienczakowski & Moore, 2008, p. 452). The intent of weaving personal feelings, dissent, and apprehension into the production was to enkindle an imaginative sentiment of being a student, or teacher, in the production—to feel the struggles, successes, and stresses that were endured. Alongside that, Denzin (2003) posits, “A performance authorizes itself not through the citation of scholarly texts but through its ability to invoke shared emotional experience and understanding between performer and audience” (p. 12). Children were deliberately left out of the script so it could arouse the readers to tap into their imaginative capacities to try to reflect on a younger version of themselves in the blank space on stage. The queerness of such actions “evokes the doubt, uncertainty, and blurred vision attendant upon the articulation of queer lives and a caveat against taking ‘clarity and precision’ as methodological goals potentially inadequate to ‘messier and blurrier’ (queer) textual performances” (Warhol & Lanser, 2015, p. 12).

When we hold an image of what is objectively “the fact,” it has the effect of reifying what we experience, making our experience resistant to reevaluation and change rather than open to imagination (Greene, 1995, p. 126). Ethnodramatic scripts are not precise transcriptions, as the purpose is never to strive for replication. Our aim was to generate in the audience a semblance of reality that could induce a feeling of directly engaging with heteronormativity in educational settings that could be felt and imagined. Alongside that, Luhmann (2018) articulates that queer pedagogy requires a self-reflexive examination of limitations (p. 121). Therefore, in writing and rewriting experiences, a reflexive praxis emerged that enabled a continuous process of challenging our own, and others’, preconceptions of heteronormativity. A reflexive researcher does not simply report facts or “truths” but actively constructs interpretations of their experiences in the field, and then questions how those interpretations came about (Hertz, 1997, p. 431). Thus, the story of our interpretations brings to light new connections and understandings of our lived experiences.

Victor Hugo (1864) states, “Music expresses that which cannot be put into words and that which cannot remain silent” (p. 120). The carol “Noël Nouvelet” inspires Matthew to compose the original score for the first scene and evokes a sentiment of dissonance. Nouvelet stems from the word for “newness,” and is of inspiration to bring about transformation through the harmonization of an old carol with renewed hope. The strings portray Mr. Lambert’s endeavor to instigate change, weaving in and out, alongside a melody that showcases heteronormative undertones. As the music unfolds, the strings attempt to secede, but are rebuffed by the expectation of the ear to return to the original melody. The original score for the second scene is lighter than the first. It interlaces sustained pizzicato and tremolos to induce a space to support the audience to reflect on their own personal experiences. The arrangement of the main riff from “Deck the Halls” embraces the earthy timbres of cello and horn to stress the amount of time necessary to learn and refine lines for a production. It also underscores the strides made, time and again, to counter heteronormative practices in schools.

As the result of instructional bias, marginalized students can suffer from invisibility, stereotyping, and imbalance in curricular representation. The intent of our inquiry was to decenter, destabilize, and deconstruct heteronormative underpinnings in education by advocating for agency, autonomy, and inclusivity. As our inquiry unfolded, we continually revisited the question posed by Ladsen-Billings (1995), “How can pedagogy promote the kind of student success that engages larger social structural issues in a critical way?” (p. 469) Indeed, efforts were made to counter epistemic injustice by seeking to promote inclusivity in arts learning experiences. However, doing so showed the entrenched presence of heteronormativity within educational institutions, and highlighted the complexity of dismantling dominant structures. We came to understand that challenging heteronormativity in schools is a gradual process, and each small step, no matter how seemingly insignificant, contributes to the cause over time.

According to Sears (1999), teaching queerly comprises “creating classrooms that challenge categorical thinking, promote interpersonal intelligence, and foster critical consciousness…[and it] demands we explore taken-for-granted assumptions about diversity, identities, childhood, and prejudice” (p. 5). Guided by ABER, we were able to use creative expressions to examine, expose, and challenge those taken-for-granted assumptions and reveal how educators can digress from previously accepted practices and ask questions that challenge heterosexual normalizations. We embraced an ethnodramatic practice because of its potential to amplify the narratives of marginalized voices, raise awareness, and promote social change. Warhol and Lanser (2015) believe “narratives are critical to constructing, maintaining, interpreting, exposing and dismantling the social systems, cultural practices, and individual lives that shape and are shaped by performative acts” (pp. 7–8). Moreover, we believe the storying and (re)storying of lived experiences in our inquiry provide a provocation for others to critically reflect on their experiences with systemic injustices, and can encourage discourse and action—ultimately acting as a catalyst for transformation and greater societal understanding.

Our inquiry demonstrates how queering teaching and learning experiences, and in particular drama, can become a call to action for educators. We discover that creating opportunities for students to delve into varied costumes, themes, and characters can strengthen or transform their self-perception, and can embolden them to uncover facets of their identity. We are aware that questions may arise as to the usefulness of our research, but this inquiry should be considered as more than a story of teachers who strive to resist heteronormativity, rather as pedagogical research that challenges people’s assumptions of education and encourages reflexivity. One does not need to identify as LGBTQ in order to ascribe to the values that support queerness, as everyone has a role to play in creating a more inclusive society. Thus, our hope is that this study impacts teachers, administrators, researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers to promote initiatives that counter heteronormative practices, and support the well-being of all elementary school students.

1.

There are numerous titles to identify the queer community. For instance, in Canada, 2SLGBTQAI+ is commonly used. This stands for two-spirited, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans*, queer, asexual, and intersexed. Any identities not mentioned are included with the use of +. Although we use the term LGBTQ for this inquiry, we are mindful that each person within the larger queer community has a unique identity, and this plays a significant role in understanding and use of them.

2.

The script that the three teachers create is performed at their elementary school. The production involves all students from kindergarten to Grade 7. A cast of intermediate students act out the script, and each division performs a musical number.

3.

The music for Scene 1 is available at the following link: https://youtu.be/rXZ89-Jr8T4

5.

The music for Scene 2 is available at the following link: https://youtu.be/pRCT4q5-GPs

6.

The term “campy” is used in a playful manner to encourage Dasher to be more glitzy. That being said, research elucidates a connection with this word to femmephobia, which refers to the systematic devaluation of femininity as well as the regulation of patriarchal femininity (Hoskin, 2019). Also, LGBTQ participants in a study (Davies et al., 2023) make associations between femininity in gay men and “camp” and “flamboyant” behaviors as negative attributes.

Alloway
,
N
. (
1995
).
Foundation stones: The construction of gender in early childhood
.
Curriculum Corporation
.
Beare
,
D.
, &
Belliveau
,
G.
(
2008
). Dialoguing scripted data. In
S.
Springgay
,
R.
Irwin
, &
C.
Leggo
(Eds.),
Being with a/r/tography
(pp.
141
149
).
Sense Publishers
.
Boal
,
A
. (
2000
).
Theater of the oppressed
.
Pluto Press
.
Brown
,
E. R.
(
2005
).
Decentering dominant discourses in education: The emancipatory possibilities of our work
.
Counterpoints
,
275
,
59
75
.
Castro
,
I. E.
, &
Sujak
,
M. C.
(
2014
). “
Why can’t we learn about this?” Sexual minority students navigate the official and hidden curricular spaces of high school
.
Education and Urban Society
,
46
(
4
),
450
473
. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124512458117
Cole
,
A. L.
, &
Knowles
,
J. G.
(
2001
). Qualities of inquiry: Process, form, and “goodness.” In
L.
Nielsen
,
A. L.
Cole
, &
J. G.
Knowles
(Eds.),
The art of writing inquiry
(pp.
211
229
).
Backalong Books
.
Cook
,
C. C.
(
2021
).
The causes of human sexual orientation
.
Theology & Sexuality
,
27
(
1
),
1
19
.
Davies
,
A. W. J.
,
Winkelman
,
S.
,
Collict
,
D.
, &
Brennan
,
D. J.
(
2023
). “
I wouldn’t say that I’m overly campy”: The socio-cultural subjugation of femininity within gay socio-sexual applications
.
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality
,
32
(
1
),
85
. https://doi.org/10.3138/cjhs.2022-0032
Davies
,
B
. (
1989
).
Frogs and snails and feminist tales: Preschool children and gender
.
Allen & Unwin
.
Denzin
,
N. K
. (
2003
).
Performance ethnography: Critical pedagogy and the politics of culture
.
SAGE Publications
.
Edelman
,
L.
(
2004
).
No future: Queer theory and the death drive
.
Duke University Press
. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822385981
Eisner
,
E. W
. (
2002
).
The arts and the creation of mind
.
Yale University Press
.
Epstein
,
D.
, &
Johnson
,
R
. (
1994
). On the straight and narrow: The heterosexual presumption, homophobias and schools. In
D.
Epstein
(Ed.),
Challenging lesbian and gay inequalities in education
(pp.
197
230
).
Open University Press
.
Erikson
,
E. H
. (
1977
).
Childhood and society
.
Paladin Grafton Books
.
Freire
,
P
. (
1979
).
Pedagogy of the oppressed
.
Bloomsbury Academic
.
Gerber
,
N.
, &
Siegesmund
,
R.
(
2022
).
Innovations in arts-based research: ABR provocations from the 16th International Congress of Qualitative Research
.
International Review of Qualitative Research
,
15
(
2
),
147
167
. https://doi.org/10.1177/19408447221090651
Gouzouasis
,
P.
(
2008
). Toccata on assessment, validity, & interpretation. In
S.
Springgay
,
R.
Irwin
,
C.
Leggo
, &
P.
Gouzouasis
(Eds.),
Being with a/r/tograhy
(pp.
212
232
).
Sense Publishers
.
Greene
,
M
. (
1995
).
Releasing the imagination
.
Jossey-Bass Publishers
.
Greytak
,
E. A.
,
Kosciw
,
J. G.
, &
Boesen
,
M. J.
(
2013
).
Educating the educator: Creating supportive school personnel through professional development
.
Journal of School Violence
,
12
(
1
),
80
97
. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2012.731586
Hertz
,
R
. (
1997
).
Reflexivity and voice
.
SAGE Publications
.
Hoskin
,
R. A.
(
2019
).
Femmephobia: The role of anti-femininity and gender policing in LGBTQ+ people’s experiences of discrimination
.
Sex Roles
,
81
(
11–12
),
686
703
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1l199-019-01021-3
Hugo
,
V
. (
1864
).
William Shakespeare
.
Librairie International
.
Johnson
,
E. P.
(
2008
).
Queer theory
. In
T. C.
Davis
(Ed.),
The Cambridge companion to performative studies
(pp.
166
181
).
Cambridge University Press
. https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL9780521874014
Keenan
,
H.
, &
Hot Mess
,
L. M.
(
2020
).
Drag pedagogy: The playful practice of queer imagination in early childhood
.
Curriculum Inquiry
,
50
(
5
),
440
461
. https://doi.org/10.1080/03626784.2020.1864621
Kibblesmith
,
D.
, &
Quach
,
A. P
. (
2017
).
Santa’s husband
.
HarperCollins
.
Kosut
,
M.
, &
Moore
,
L. J
. (
2010
). Introduction: Not just the reflexive reflex. Flesh and bone in the social sciences. In
L. J.
Moore
&
M.
Kosut
(Eds.),
The body reader
(pp.
1
26
).
New York University Press
.
Krack
,
D. A
. (
2020
).
So…here I am: An ethnodramatic exploration of the experiences of LGBTQ+ high school students
[Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania]
.
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global
.
Ladson-Billings
,
G.
(
1995
).
Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy
.
American Educational Research Journal
,
32
(
3
),
465
491
. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312032003465
Leavy
,
P
. (
2015
).
Method meets art: Arts-based research practice
(2nd ed).
Guilford Press
.
Leggo
,
C.
(
2008
).
Personal and professional experience
. In
M.
Cahnmann
&
R.
Siegesmund
(Eds.),
Arts-based educational research in education: Foundations for practice
(pp.
89
97
).
Routledge
. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315796147
Luhmann
,
S.
(
2018
).
Queering/querying pedagogy? Or, pedagogy is a pretty queer thing
. In
W. F.
Pinar
(Ed.),
Queer theory in education
(pp.
120
132
).
Routledge
. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410603760
Mayo
,
C.
(
2017
).
Challenging research: The problems and limitations of research queer, questioning, and ally youth. Gay-straight alliances and associations among youth in schools
.
Palgrave Macmillan
. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59529-4_2
Mienczakowski
,
J.
, &
Moore
,
T.
(
2008
).
Performing data with notions of responsibility
. In
J. G.
Knowles
&
A. L.
Cole
(Eds.),
Handbook of the arts in qualitative research
(pp.
451
458
).
SAGE Publications
. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452226545
Monro
,
S.
(
2020
).
Sexual and gender diversities: Implications for LGBTQ studies
.
Journal of Homosexuality
,
67
(
3
),
315
324
. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2018.1528079
Morris
,
M.
(
2018
).
Unresting the curriculum: Queer projects, queer imaginings
. In
W. F.
Pinar
(Ed.),
Queer theory in education
(pp.
227
236
).
Routledge
. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410603760
Perkins
,
C.
(
2012
).
How school principals understand and respond to homophobia: A study of one B.C. public school district using ethnodrama
[
Unpublished doctoral dissertation
].
University of British Columbia
,
Canada
.
Potvin
,
L.
(
2020
).
Queer pedagogies
. In
N. A.
Naples
(Ed.),
Companion to sexuality studies
(pp.
122
139
).
John Wiley & Sons
. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119315049.ch7
Quantz
,
M.
, &
Buell
,
J. Y.
(
2019
).
Disrupting epistemic injustice in education research through digital platforms and public scholarship
.
Critical Questions in Education
,
10
(
2
),
120
.
Rahman
,
M.
(
2010
).
Queer as intersectionality: Theorizing gay Muslim identities
.
Sociology
,
44
(
5
),
944
961
. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038510375733
Rivers
,
S. R.
(
2020
).
Expression of the oppressed: Using critical pedagogy in arts education to disrupt systems of oppression
.
Visions of Research in Music Education
,
35
,
1
.
Robinson
,
K. H.
(
2005
). “
Queerying” gender: Heteronormativity in early childhood education
.
Australian Journal of Early Childhood
,
30
(
2
),
19
28
. https://doi.org/10.1177/183693910503000206
Robinson
,
K. H.
, &
Ferfolja
,
T.
(
2008
).
Playing it up, playing it down, playing it safe: Queering teacher education
.
Teacher and Teacher Education
,
24
(
4
),
846
858
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2007.11.004
Saldaña
,
J.
(Ed.). (
2005
).
Ethnodrama: An anthology of reality theatre
.
Altamira Press
.
Sapp
,
J.
(
2010
).
A review of gay and lesbian themed early childhood children’s literature
.
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood
,
35
(
1
),
32
40
. https://doi.org/10.1177/183693911003500106
Sears
,
J. T
. (
1999
). Teaching queerly: Some elementary propositions. In
W. J.
Letts
&
J. T.
Sears
(Eds.),
Queering elementary education: Advancing the dialogue about sexualities and schooling
(pp.
3
14
).
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
.
Souto-Manning
,
M.
, &
Hermann-Wilmarth
,
J.
(
2008
).
Teacher inquiries into gay and lesbian families in early childhood classrooms
.
Journal of Early Childhood Research
,
6
(
3
),
263
280
. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718X08094450
Stockton
,
K. B.
(
2009
).
The queer child, or growing sideways in the twentieth century
.
Duke University Press
. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822390268
Stryker
,
S
. (
2008
).
Transgender history
.
Seal Press
.
Sullivan
,
N
. (
2003
).
A critical introduction to queer theory
.
New York University Press
.
Sweet
,
J. D
., &
Carlson
,
D. L
. (
2018
).
A story of becoming: Trans equity as ethnodrama
.
Qualitative Inquiry
,
24
(
3
),
183
193
. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417704467
Tomczyk
,
P.
(
2020
).
Queering high school: An ethnodramatic inqueery on youth experiences of homophobic, biphobic and transphobic harassment and bullying
[
Unpublished doctoral dissertation
].
University of Alberta
. https://doi.org/10.7939/r3-b3hw-np36
Viesca
,
K. M.
,
Matias
,
C. E.
,
Garrison-Wade
,
D.
,
Tandon
,
M.
, &
Galindo
,
R.
(
2014
).
“Push it real good.” The challenge of disrupting dominant discourses regarding race in teacher education
.
Critical Education
,
5
(
11
). http://ojs.library.ubc.ca/index.php/criticaled/article/view/184211
Warhol
,
R.
, &
Lanser
,
S. S
. (
2015
).
Narrative theory unbound: Queer and feminist interventions
.
The Ohio State University Press
.
Yanko
,
M
. (
2019
).
Learners’ identity through soundscape composition: Extending the pedagogies of Loris Malaguzzi with music pedagogy
.
LEARNing Landscapes
,
12
(
1
),
271
284
. https://doi.org/10.36510/learnland.v12i1.994
Yanko
,
M.
(
2021
).
Living assessment: The artful assessment of learning in the arts
[
Unpublished doctoral dissertation
].
University of British Columbia
. https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0396866