Nations across Africa have launched an array of policy initiatives that aim to position mining as an engine for job creation and inclusive development, echoing earlier post-independence programs to claim sovereignty over natural resources. The reforms include requirements for mining companies to provide local employment and development support, as well as measures to bring artisanal and small-scale mining under formal regulation. But so far, hopes for a labor-intensive mining sector have still not panned out, while automation associated with new technologies threatens jobs in the sector.

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