German colonial rule, followed by South African occupation, left Namibia with lasting patterns of extreme inequality in land ownership. Reform plans issued in recent decades have yielded little relief for the landless majority, including urban dwellers. Despite the emergence of new social movements demanding change, political elites who have become large landowners show few signs of willingness to pursue transformative measures. A recent agreement with Germany to make amends for genocide has also failed to satisfy calls for land reparations.

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