The 2022 floods that affected 33 million people in Pakistan resulted from a confluence of factors. The nation is highly vulnerable to climate change, which requires international action. But internal governance reforms are needed to improve the state’s ability to help citizens recover from the floods and better prepare for future natural disasters. Pakistan has mismanaged its natural resources and is mired in economic and political crises. In rural areas, colonial-era patterns persist in unequal control over land and water. Though some lessons were learned from major 2010 floods, the latest disaster response revealed a need for improving coordination across different levels of government and engaging with civil society.

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