An energy crisis has unfolded in the European Union since the autumn of 2021. The crisis has worsened due to Russia’s attack on Ukraine and climate change. The EU reacted by launching the REPowerEU agenda, which aims at cutting imports of Russian fossil fuels by diversifying trade partners, increasing energy efficiency, and accelerating the energy transition. But there are complications, especially European countries’ quest for new and more polluting fossil fuel supplies in the short run, which contradicts the EU’s green ambitions.

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