Ukraine defied expectations by withstanding a full-scale Russian invasion in 2022, demonstrating the resilience of both local and national institutions. This was a striking contrast with 2014, when Russia seized Crimea and backed separatist revolts in the east of Ukraine, and the Ukrainian response had been weak and divided. Since then, Ukraine has strengthened its institutions by building political legitimacy and the capacity of its armed forces, cultivating national unity, and obtaining more international support.

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