The threat of mass-casualty terrorist attacks in Europe directed by international organizations may have subsided, but the threat is in many respects now more menacing that ever. Lone-actor attacks motivated by a confused mixture of ideologies, often combined with mental health issues, are increasingly the norm, and are harder to detect and prevent. A rising extreme right, meanwhile, is increasingly mirroring violent Islamist groups. In these varied forms, terrorism continues to strike at the heart of European identity and liberal ideals, playing out against a backdrop of anti-immigrant sentiment and high levels of political polarization.

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