Financial innovations stemming from the digital economy have transformed Indonesians’ everyday lives. “Superapps” offering ride sharing and an array of other services have delivered many conveniences to consumers, while also trapping many in cycles of debt. The state has responded with little more than public awareness campaigns, urging consumers to develop their own digital literacy to avoid scams. Corruption at the state level, meanwhile, remains pervasive, as shown by scandals exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Construction of a new capital city will be another test of financial transparency.

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