Communities of landless Hindus and Muslims in the Sundarbans, a mangrove-forested river delta sprawling across the Bangladesh–India border, have common class-based grievances and concerns for the imperiled ecosystem that transcend their religious differences. Their shared beliefs and practices include veneration of the same Muslim saint, Bonbibi (the Lady of the Forest), who is regarded as a protector of the forest and the landless poor who depend on it to eke out a livelihood. Their ecumenical practices reflect religious ideals shaped by the complex, delicate ecosystem that sustains them. This tradition is not a muddled synthesis of Islam and Hinduism; it is rooted in the history of settlement in the region.

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