Myanmar has one of the lowest electrification rates in the world, and most of its inhabitants, who lack access to electricity, live off-grid in rural areas. Despite Myanmar having abundant sun and wind energy resources, which could potentially generate electricity for rural communities, renewable energy growth in Myanmar is stunted. In this article, we examine the case study of renewable energy development in Myanmar to better understand the factors that influence renewable energy development and deployment in a developing country context. Our analysis reveals that there are numerous reasons for the lack of solar, wind, and biomass energy growth in Myanmar, such as regressive electricity tariffs, problematic hydropower contracts, low levels of social acceptance and awareness of clean technologies, and a lack of institutional policy framework for renewable energy. To reduce energy poverty and increase the share of electricity generation from renewable resources in Myanmar, we recommend tariff reforms and the establishment of a transparent, effective national policy framework. Increasing access to financial resources in rural areas, gaining public trust and support from local communities, and promoting their involvement in decision making in renewable energy projects should also be prioritised. Disseminating knowledge on clean technologies is also recommended to increase environmental awareness and encourage long-term behavioural change.

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