The authors analyze the divisions within Russian liberalism—another influential IR theory—and the contradictory nature of this intellectual movement. In particular, they draw the attention to the debate between pro-Western and more nationally oriented liberals, which they view in terms of the familiar disagreement between supporters of cosmopolitan and communitarian thoughts. Whereas cosmopolitans insist on the emergence of a single humanity and emphasize the factors of unifying and homogenizing nature, communitarians underscore the role of national and cultural foundations in building democratic institutions in the world. The authors trace how various liberal currents perceive the nature of the post-Cold War order, Russia’s national interests, and its foreign policy orientations.

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