The ongoing health crisis in the Ukraine has persisted for 48 years with a clear division of gender-based outcomes as seen in the decline of male life expectancy and stagnation of female longevity. The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in self-rated health and system barriers to health care applicable to gender and its intersections because of the differing negative health outcomes for men and women. Intersectionality theory provides an analytic framework for interpreting our results. Utilizing a nationwide sample of the Ukrainian population (N ¼ 1908), we found that low socioeconomic status (SES) women rate their health worse than men generally and any other socioeconomic group. Yet women also face the greatest barriers to health care until older ages when the ailments of men cause them to likewise face the obstacles. In reviewing the barrier to health care scale, one barrier—that of health care services being too expensive—dominated the responses with some 52.5 percent of the sample reporting it. Consequently, the greatest problem in Ukraine with respect to health reform reported by the population is the out-of-pocket costs for care in a system that is officially free. These costs, constituting some 40 percent of all national health expenditures, affect women and the aged the most.
Self-rated health and barriers to healthcare in Ukraine: The pivotal role of gender and its intersections
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William C. Cockerham, Bryant W. Hamby, Olena Hankivsky, Elizabeth H. Baker, Setareh Rouhani; Self-rated health and barriers to healthcare in Ukraine: The pivotal role of gender and its intersections. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 1 March 2017; 50 (1): 53–63. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postcomstud.2017.01.001
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