In an effort to make explicit methodological principles in the logic of inquiry of post-Soviet studies, this article examines and critiques positions advanced by some leading Sovietologists that (1) there is a qualitative difference between the natural and social sciences (antinaturalism) and (2) communist regimes were somehow unique and therefore beyond the pale of social science research methods. In addition, there are pragmatic reasons to press the naturalist position in order to facilitate the acquisition of a systematic knowledge base in the study of post-communist regimes and societies. The consequences of assumptions based on scientific realism in recent methodological discussions are also examined.

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