Following the publication of our recent article in Collabra: Psychology [https://www.collabra.org/articles/10.1525/collabra.185/] we wish to bring the following corrigendum to your attention.

In the version of the paper initially published, several tables in the main text had typographical errors. These errors were not in the data files or the results reported in the supplementary materials, and they do not affect any of the conclusions in the paper. The author thanks her students, Trish Burkins, Janak Judd, and Jennifer Ochiagha, for finding these errors. These errors have been corrected in the preprint version of the paper on the OSF and PsyArXiv.

Table 3

Study 1a: Condition Statistics and Tests of Between-Condition Differences on LIWC Word Categories used at least 0.5% of the Time.

Word TypeExamplesHigh NSLow NSTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
High NS higher           
  Clout/influence a 26.53 25.25 17.46 19.74 477.41 4.50 9.07 [5.11, 13.05] 0.400 
  Emotional tone b 69.53 31.15 23.69 29.17 499.96 17.04 45.84 [40.56, 51.13] 1.519 
  Personal pronouns I, them, her 14.72 5.64 12.77 4.25 470.43 4.37 1.94 [1.07, 2.82] 0.388 
  Interrogatives how, when, what 3.17 3.59 1.65 1.87 382.89 5.98 1.52 [1.02, 2.03] 0.531 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 3.94 3.66 1.59 2.18 413.96 8.80 2.36 [1.83, 2.88] 0.781 
  Causation because, effect 2.81 3.84 1.53 2.05 387.75 4.70 1.28 [0.75, 1.82] 0.416 
  Drives ally, win, danger 11.12 6.56 8.59 6.57 500.77 4.32 2.53 [1.38, 3.68] 0.385 
  Reward take, prize, benefit 2.05 2.65 1.12 1.75 439.78 4.62 0.92 [0.53, 1.32] 0.410 
Low NS higher           
  Auxiliary verbs am, will, have 7.99 4.88 10.16 4.47 501.00 –5.21 –2.17 [–2.99, –1.35] –0.464 
  Negations no, not, never 0.60 1.44 2.61 2.30 414.52 –11.71 –2.01 [–2.35, –1.67] –1.049 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.20 0.74 3.29 3.28 272.45 –14.51 –3.09 [–3.50, –2.67] –1.306 
  Anxiety worried, fearful 0.06 0.40 1.40 2.19 264.36 –9.50 –1.34 [–1.62, –1.07] –0.855 
  Tentative maybe, perhaps 1.26 2.13 2.39 2.41 491.1–5.54 –1.13 [–1.52, –0.73] –0.495 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 1.84 2.68 3.73 3.02 491.79 –7.45 –1.90 [–2.40, –1.40] –0.665 
Word TypeExamplesHigh NSLow NSTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
High NS higher           
  Clout/influence a 26.53 25.25 17.46 19.74 477.41 4.50 9.07 [5.11, 13.05] 0.400 
  Emotional tone b 69.53 31.15 23.69 29.17 499.96 17.04 45.84 [40.56, 51.13] 1.519 
  Personal pronouns I, them, her 14.72 5.64 12.77 4.25 470.43 4.37 1.94 [1.07, 2.82] 0.388 
  Interrogatives how, when, what 3.17 3.59 1.65 1.87 382.89 5.98 1.52 [1.02, 2.03] 0.531 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 3.94 3.66 1.59 2.18 413.96 8.80 2.36 [1.83, 2.88] 0.781 
  Causation because, effect 2.81 3.84 1.53 2.05 387.75 4.70 1.28 [0.75, 1.82] 0.416 
  Drives ally, win, danger 11.12 6.56 8.59 6.57 500.77 4.32 2.53 [1.38, 3.68] 0.385 
  Reward take, prize, benefit 2.05 2.65 1.12 1.75 439.78 4.62 0.92 [0.53, 1.32] 0.410 
Low NS higher           
  Auxiliary verbs am, will, have 7.99 4.88 10.16 4.47 501.00 –5.21 –2.17 [–2.99, –1.35] –0.464 
  Negations no, not, never 0.60 1.44 2.61 2.30 414.52 –11.71 –2.01 [–2.35, –1.67] –1.049 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.20 0.74 3.29 3.28 272.45 –14.51 –3.09 [–3.50, –2.67] –1.306 
  Anxiety worried, fearful 0.06 0.40 1.40 2.19 264.36 –9.50 –1.34 [–1.62, –1.07] –0.855 
  Tentative maybe, perhaps 1.26 2.13 2.39 2.41 491.1–5.54 –1.13 [–1.52, –0.73] –0.495 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 1.84 2.68 3.73 3.02 491.79 –7.45 –1.90 [–2.40, –1.40] –0.665 

Note: NS = need support. To limit the potential for false-positive results in the linguistic analyses, I set a conservative limit for statistical significance at p < .001, two-tailed, and d ≥ ±.375. Degrees of freedom are adjusted for heterogeneity of variance. Mean values indicate the mean percentage of all of the words that participants used that fell into a particular category, except the mean values for words per sentence and the summary variables (clout and tone). a The clout/influence variable is by Kacewicz et al. (2014). b The emotional tone variable is by Cohn et al. (2004).

Table 4

Study 1b: Condition Statistics and Tests of Between-Condition Differences on LIWC Word Categories used at least 0.5% of the Time.

Word TypeExamplesHopesDutiesTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
High NS higher           
  Analytical thinking a 59.29 29.55 45.86 33.16 431.18 4.48 13.43 [7.53, 19.32] 0.427 
  Clout/influence b 35.06 29.37 23.22 27.49 436.00 4.36 11.84 [6.50, 17.18] 0.416 
  Emotional tone c 81.30 28.35 44.33 36.83 410.91 11.78 36.97 [30.80, 43.14] 1.124 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 7.54 7.93 4.34 6.00 404.01 4.75 3.20 [1.87, 4.52] 0.455 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 8.32 7.48 5.38 7.01 433.59 4.26 2.95 [1.59, 4.31] 0.407 
  Friends buddy, neighbor 1.06 2.66 0.22 0.84 259.86 4.47 0.84 [0.47, 1.21] 0.428 
  Affiliation ally, friend, social 5.37 6.58 2.43 6.80 453.78 4.60 2.94 [1.69, 4.20] 0.440 
Low NS higher           
  Auxiliary verbs am, will, have 5.69 4.47 9.04 6.46 390.08 –6.30 –3.34 [–4.39, –2.30] –0.601 
  Common adverbs very, really 3.05 3.23 5.15 4.52 396.37 –5.61 –2.10 [–2.84, –1.37] –0.535 
  Negations no, not, never 0.50 1.32 1.63 1.89 391.77 –7.27 –1.13 [–1.43, –0.82] –0.694 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.22 0.74 2.46 2.81 249.89 –11.45 –2.24 [–2.63, –1.86] –1.090 
  Anxiety worried, fearful 0.06 0.43 1.12 1.72 246.88 –8.84 –1.06 [–1.30, –0.82] –0.842 
  Cognitive processes cause, know, ought 10.00 7.01 14.30 8.36 424.28 –5.83 –4.30 [–5.75, –2.85] –0.557 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 2.22 2.84 3.68 3.39 424.47 –4.90 –1.46 [–2.05, –0.88] –0.468 
  Feel feels, touch 1.14 2.09 2.25 2.58 419.52 –4.93 –1.10 [–1.55, –0.66] –0.471 
Word TypeExamplesHopesDutiesTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
High NS higher           
  Analytical thinking a 59.29 29.55 45.86 33.16 431.18 4.48 13.43 [7.53, 19.32] 0.427 
  Clout/influence b 35.06 29.37 23.22 27.49 436.00 4.36 11.84 [6.50, 17.18] 0.416 
  Emotional tone c 81.30 28.35 44.33 36.83 410.91 11.78 36.97 [30.80, 43.14] 1.124 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 7.54 7.93 4.34 6.00 404.01 4.75 3.20 [1.87, 4.52] 0.455 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 8.32 7.48 5.38 7.01 433.59 4.26 2.95 [1.59, 4.31] 0.407 
  Friends buddy, neighbor 1.06 2.66 0.22 0.84 259.86 4.47 0.84 [0.47, 1.21] 0.428 
  Affiliation ally, friend, social 5.37 6.58 2.43 6.80 453.78 4.60 2.94 [1.69, 4.20] 0.440 
Low NS higher           
  Auxiliary verbs am, will, have 5.69 4.47 9.04 6.46 390.08 –6.30 –3.34 [–4.39, –2.30] –0.601 
  Common adverbs very, really 3.05 3.23 5.15 4.52 396.37 –5.61 –2.10 [–2.84, –1.37] –0.535 
  Negations no, not, never 0.50 1.32 1.63 1.89 391.77 –7.27 –1.13 [–1.43, –0.82] –0.694 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.22 0.74 2.46 2.81 249.89 –11.45 –2.24 [–2.63, –1.86] –1.090 
  Anxiety worried, fearful 0.06 0.43 1.12 1.72 246.88 –8.84 –1.06 [–1.30, –0.82] –0.842 
  Cognitive processes cause, know, ought 10.00 7.01 14.30 8.36 424.28 –5.83 –4.30 [–5.75, –2.85] –0.557 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 2.22 2.84 3.68 3.39 424.47 –4.90 –1.46 [–2.05, –0.88] –0.468 
  Feel feels, touch 1.14 2.09 2.25 2.58 419.52 –4.93 –1.10 [–1.55, –0.66] –0.471 

Note: NS = need support. To limit the potential for false-positive results in the linguistic analyses, I set a conservative limit for statistical significance at p < .001, two-tailed, and d ≥ ±.402. Degrees of freedom are adjusted for heterogeneity of variance. Mean values indicate the mean percentage of all of the words that participants used that fell into a particular category, except the mean values for words per sentence and the summary variables (analytical thinking, clout, and tone). a The analytical thinking variable is by Pennebaker et al. (2015). b The clout/influence variable is by Kacewicz et al. (2014). c The emotional tone variable is by Cohn et al. (2004).

Table 5

Study 2: Condition Statistics and Tests of Between-Condition Differences on LIWC Word Categories used at least 0.5% of the Time.

Word TypeExamplesHopesDutiesTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
Hopes higher           
  Emotional tone a 62.94 35.25 42.91 33.80 444.04 6.13 20.02 [13.60, 26.44] 0.580 
  Words with more than six letters – 18.88 12.64 13.66 8.15 379.11 5.16 5.19 [3.21, 7.17] 0.488 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 3.69 4.32 2.08 3.08 426.22 4.91 1.61 [0.96, 2.25] 0.465 
  Reward take, prize, benefit 3.17 3.78 1.75 2.84 411.85 4.49 1.42 [0.80, 2.04] 0.425 
  Work job, majors, read 10.26 8.92 6.25 8.94 445.00 4.74 4.00 [2.34, 5.56] 0.448 
Duties higher           
  LIWC dictionary words – 91.28 8.58 94.31 6.03 398.04 –4.32 –3.03 [–4.41, –1.65] –0.409 
  Total function words it, to, no, very 52.82 10.97 58.29 10.26 445.00 –5.45 –5.47 [–7.45, –3.50] –0.515 
  Total pronouns I, them, itself 15.51 7.73 19.68 7.86 445.00 –5.67 –4.18 [–5.63, –2.73] –0.536 
  Personal pronouns I, them, her 12.15 6.29 15.46 6.52 445.00 –5.46 –3.31 [–4.50, – 2.12] –0.517 
  Third person singular she, her, him 0.24 1.32 2.01 3.60 281.58 –6.89 –1.77 [–2.27, –1.26] –0.651 
  Negations no, not, never 0.27 0.97 1.27 2.02 321.08 –6.68 –1.00 [–1.30, –0.71] –0.631 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.30 1.10 1.02 2.06 340.08 –4.77 –0.74 [–1.05, –0.44] –0.450 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 4.36 6.20 9.25 7.85 423.26 –7.31 –4.89 [–5.44, –3.58] –0.691 
  Family daughter, dad, aunt 0.60 2.77 2.05 3.24 548.25 –5.10 –1.45 [–2.01, –0.89] –0.482 
  Female references girl, her, mom 0.44 2.80 2.27 4.51 372.88 –5.15 –1.83 [–2.53, –1.13] –0.487 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 0.99 2.12 2.74 3.50 367.94 –6.37 –1.74 [–2.28, –1.20] –0.602 
Word TypeExamplesHopesDutiesTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
Hopes higher           
  Emotional tone a 62.94 35.25 42.91 33.80 444.04 6.13 20.02 [13.60, 26.44] 0.580 
  Words with more than six letters – 18.88 12.64 13.66 8.15 379.11 5.16 5.19 [3.21, 7.17] 0.488 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 3.69 4.32 2.08 3.08 426.22 4.91 1.61 [0.96, 2.25] 0.465 
  Reward take, prize, benefit 3.17 3.78 1.75 2.84 411.85 4.49 1.42 [0.80, 2.04] 0.425 
  Work job, majors, read 10.26 8.92 6.25 8.94 445.00 4.74 4.00 [2.34, 5.56] 0.448 
Duties higher           
  LIWC dictionary words – 91.28 8.58 94.31 6.03 398.04 –4.32 –3.03 [–4.41, –1.65] –0.409 
  Total function words it, to, no, very 52.82 10.97 58.29 10.26 445.00 –5.45 –5.47 [–7.45, –3.50] –0.515 
  Total pronouns I, them, itself 15.51 7.73 19.68 7.86 445.00 –5.67 –4.18 [–5.63, –2.73] –0.536 
  Personal pronouns I, them, her 12.15 6.29 15.46 6.52 445.00 –5.46 –3.31 [–4.50, – 2.12] –0.517 
  Third person singular she, her, him 0.24 1.32 2.01 3.60 281.58 –6.89 –1.77 [–2.27, –1.26] –0.651 
  Negations no, not, never 0.27 0.97 1.27 2.02 321.08 –6.68 –1.00 [–1.30, –0.71] –0.631 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.30 1.10 1.02 2.06 340.08 –4.77 –0.74 [–1.05, –0.44] –0.450 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 4.36 6.20 9.25 7.85 423.26 –7.31 –4.89 [–5.44, –3.58] –0.691 
  Family daughter, dad, aunt 0.60 2.77 2.05 3.24 548.25 –5.10 –1.45 [–2.01, –0.89] –0.482 
  Female references girl, her, mom 0.44 2.80 2.27 4.51 372.88 –5.15 –1.83 [–2.53, –1.13] –0.487 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 0.99 2.12 2.74 3.50 367.94 –6.37 –1.74 [–2.28, –1.20] –0.602 

Note: To limit the potential for false-positive results, I set a conservative limit for inclusion in this table at p < .001, two-tailed, and d ≥ ±.399. Degrees of freedom are adjusted for heterogeneity of variance. Mean values indicate the mean percentage of all of the words that participants used that fell into a particular category, except the mean values for words with more than six letter, LIWC dictionary words, and the summary variable (tone). a The emotional tone variable is by Cohn et al. (2004).

Table 6

Vaughn (2018): Condition Statistics and Tests of Between-Condition Differences on LIWC Word Categories used at least 0.5% of the Time.

Word TypeExamplesHopesDutiesTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
Hopes higher           
  Analytical thinking a 69.01 28.30 53.94 32.77 588.19 6.04 15.07 [10.17, 19.98] 0.492 
  Emotional tone b 61.77 34.27 43.13 34.48 599.00 6.64 18.63 [13.13, 24.14] 0.542 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 3.82 4.32 2.27 3.06 536.24 5.09 1.56 [0.96, 2.16] 0.416 
  Achievement win, success, better 4.38 5.38 2.38 3.85 539.66 5.24 2.00 [1.25, 2.75] 0.428 
  Reward take, prize, benefit 3.56 5.06 1.80 2.83 466.50 5.24 1.75 [1.10, 2.41] 0.429 
  Work job, majors, read 9.72 9.27 5.88 6.55 535.95 5.87 3.84 [2.56, 5.13] 0.479 
  Leisure cook, chat, movie 2.89 5.64 0.90 2.09 377.53 5.73 1.99 [1.31, 2.680.469 
Duties higher           
  Clout/influence c 24.73 23.57 34.59 30.00 569.65 –4.48 –9.86 [–14.19, –5.54] –0.365 
  Words per sentence – 15.52 6.68 18.26 8.05 599.00 –4.53 –2.73 [–3.92, –1.55] –0.369 
  Total function words it, to, no, very 53.33 10.33 58.40 8.46 599.00 –6.58 –5.07 [–6.58, –3.55] –0.537 
  Total pronouns I, them, itself 15.54 7.13 19.24 6.93 599.00 –6.45 –3.70 [–4.83, –2.57] –0.526 
  Personal pronouns I, them, her 12.31 6.02 14.80 6.02 599.00 –5.07 –2.49 [–3.46, – 1.53] –0.414 
  Third person singular she, her, him 0.20 1.07 1.86 3.48 358.05 –7.93 –1.66 [–2.08, –1.25] –0.645 
  Conjunctions and, but, whereas 4.69 4.05 6.62 4.47 599.00 –5.55 –1.93 [–2.62, –1.25] –0.453 
  Negations no, not, never 0.42 1.10 1.27 2.13 452.50 –6.16 –0.85 [–1.12, –0.58–0.501 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.41 1.37 1.53 2.95 426.97 –5.98 –1.12 [–1.49, –0.75] –0.487 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 4.39 6.23 9.82 8.70 545.33 –8.82 –5.44 [–6.65, –4.23–0.718 
  Family daughter, dad, aunt 0.70 2.64 2.01 3.65 548.25 –5.04 –1.31 [–1.82, –0.80] –0.411 
  Female references girl, her, mom 0.31 1.60 2.03 4.30 383.37 –6.49 –1.72 [–2.24, –1.20] –0.376 
  Male references boy, his, dad 0.41 1.70 1.38 3.54 433.92 –4.29 –0.97 [–1.41, –0.52] –0.528 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 1.31 2.35 2.67 3.48 528.34 –5.66 –1.37 [–1.84, –0.89] –0.348 
  Affiliation ally, friend, social 1.45 3.06 3.39 5.24 486.33 –5.54 –1.94 [–2.63, –1.25] –0.451 
Word TypeExamplesHopesDutiesTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
Hopes higher           
  Analytical thinking a 69.01 28.30 53.94 32.77 588.19 6.04 15.07 [10.17, 19.98] 0.492 
  Emotional tone b 61.77 34.27 43.13 34.48 599.00 6.64 18.63 [13.13, 24.14] 0.542 
  Positive emotion love, nice, sweet 3.82 4.32 2.27 3.06 536.24 5.09 1.56 [0.96, 2.16] 0.416 
  Achievement win, success, better 4.38 5.38 2.38 3.85 539.66 5.24 2.00 [1.25, 2.75] 0.428 
  Reward take, prize, benefit 3.56 5.06 1.80 2.83 466.50 5.24 1.75 [1.10, 2.41] 0.429 
  Work job, majors, read 9.72 9.27 5.88 6.55 535.95 5.87 3.84 [2.56, 5.13] 0.479 
  Leisure cook, chat, movie 2.89 5.64 0.90 2.09 377.53 5.73 1.99 [1.31, 2.680.469 
Duties higher           
  Clout/influence c 24.73 23.57 34.59 30.00 569.65 –4.48 –9.86 [–14.19, –5.54] –0.365 
  Words per sentence – 15.52 6.68 18.26 8.05 599.00 –4.53 –2.73 [–3.92, –1.55] –0.369 
  Total function words it, to, no, very 53.33 10.33 58.40 8.46 599.00 –6.58 –5.07 [–6.58, –3.55] –0.537 
  Total pronouns I, them, itself 15.54 7.13 19.24 6.93 599.00 –6.45 –3.70 [–4.83, –2.57] –0.526 
  Personal pronouns I, them, her 12.31 6.02 14.80 6.02 599.00 –5.07 –2.49 [–3.46, – 1.53] –0.414 
  Third person singular she, her, him 0.20 1.07 1.86 3.48 358.05 –7.93 –1.66 [–2.08, –1.25] –0.645 
  Conjunctions and, but, whereas 4.69 4.05 6.62 4.47 599.00 –5.55 –1.93 [–2.62, –1.25] –0.453 
  Negations no, not, never 0.42 1.10 1.27 2.13 452.50 –6.16 –0.85 [–1.12, –0.58–0.501 
  Negative emotion hurt, ugly, nasty 0.41 1.37 1.53 2.95 426.97 –5.98 –1.12 [–1.49, –0.75] –0.487 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 4.39 6.23 9.82 8.70 545.33 –8.82 –5.44 [–6.65, –4.23–0.718 
  Family daughter, dad, aunt 0.70 2.64 2.01 3.65 548.25 –5.04 –1.31 [–1.82, –0.80] –0.411 
  Female references girl, her, mom 0.31 1.60 2.03 4.30 383.37 –6.49 –1.72 [–2.24, –1.20] –0.376 
  Male references boy, his, dad 0.41 1.70 1.38 3.54 433.92 –4.29 –0.97 [–1.41, –0.52] –0.528 
  Differentiation hasn’t, but, else 1.31 2.35 2.67 3.48 528.34 –5.66 –1.37 [–1.84, –0.89] –0.348 
  Affiliation ally, friend, social 1.45 3.06 3.39 5.24 486.33 –5.54 –1.94 [–2.63, –1.25] –0.451 

Note: To limit the potential for false-positive results, I set a conservative limit for inclusion in this table at p < .001, two-tailed, and d ≥ ±.344. Degrees of freedom are adjusted for heterogeneity of variance. Mean values indicate the mean percentage of all of the words that participants used that fell into a particular category, except the mean values for words per sentence and the summary variables (analytical thinking, tone, and clout). a The analytical thinking variable is by Pennebaker et al. (2015). b The emotional tone variable is by Cohn et al. (2004). c The clout/influence variable is by Kacewicz et al. (2014).

Table 8

Hopes and High Need-Support Conditions of the Combined Dataset: Condition Statistics and Tests of Between-Condition Differences on LIWC Word Categories used at least 0.5% of the Time.

Word TypeExamplesHopesHigh NSTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
Hopes higher           
  Work job, majors, read 9.95 9.12 6.34 8.83 987.32 6.33 3.61 [2.49, 4.73] 0.402 
High NS higher           
  Total pronouns I, them, itself 15.52 7.39 18.58 7.30 992.00 –6.56 –3.06 [–3.97, –2.14] –0.417 
  Conjunctions and, but, whereas 4.88 4.12 7.32 4.47 992.00 –8.99 –2.45 [–2.98, –1.91] –0.571 
  Interrogatives how, when, what 1.13 2.47 2.58 3.27 872.54 –7.80 –1.45 [–1.81, –1.08] –0.502 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 4.38 6.21 7.40 6.62 992.00 –7.44 –3.03 [–3.83, –2.23] –0.473 
  Feel feels, touch 0.55 1.55 1.58 2.20 836.15 –8.48 –1.03 [–1.27, –0.79] –0.548 
  Affiliation ally, friend, social 1.51 3.21 4.30 5.42 749.49 –9.74 –2.79 [–3.35, –2.23] –0.634 
Word TypeExamplesHopesHigh NSTests of between-condition differences

MSDMSDdftMean diff.95% CId

 
Hopes higher           
  Work job, majors, read 9.95 9.12 6.34 8.83 987.32 6.33 3.61 [2.49, 4.73] 0.402 
High NS higher           
  Total pronouns I, them, itself 15.52 7.39 18.58 7.30 992.00 –6.56 –3.06 [–3.97, –2.14] –0.417 
  Conjunctions and, but, whereas 4.88 4.12 7.32 4.47 992.00 –8.99 –2.45 [–2.98, –1.91] –0.571 
  Interrogatives how, when, what 1.13 2.47 2.58 3.27 872.54 –7.80 –1.45 [–1.81, –1.08] –0.502 
  Social processes mate, talk, they 4.38 6.21 7.40 6.62 992.00 –7.44 –3.03 [–3.83, –2.23] –0.473 
  Feel feels, touch 0.55 1.55 1.58 2.20 836.15 –8.48 –1.03 [–1.27, –0.79] –0.548 
  Affiliation ally, friend, social 1.51 3.21 4.30 5.42 749.49 –9.74 –2.79 [–3.35, –2.23] –0.634 

Note: NS = need support. To facilitate comparisons with the bold-font effect sizes in Table 7, which were d ≥ ±.402, I set a conservative limit for inclusion in Table 8 at p < .001, two-tailed, and d ≥ ±.402. Degrees of freedom are adjusted for heterogeneity of variance. Mean values indicate the mean percentage of all of the words that participants used that fell into a particular category.

The author has no competing interests to declare.

1
Vaughn
,
L. A.
(
2019
).
Distinguishing between need support and regulatory focus with LIWC
.
Collabra: Psychology
,
5
,
32
. DOI:
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