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California History (2020) 97 (2): 27–58.
Published: 01 May 2020
... wide geographic expanses. Railroads and society at large responded by altering the measures of social control through new forms of law enforcement, only one of which was the creation of private railroad-company police forces. In our own era, similar revolutionary information and communications...
California History (2018) 95 (2): 27–51.
Published: 01 May 2018
...Nidia Bañuelos In the 1960s and '70s, police reformers lost two important battles in the struggle to develop an educated and professionalized police force. First, they were forced out of the American Society of Criminology—an organization they had founded—by sociologists. Second, the School of...