In 1864, Congress passed “An Act authorizing a Grant to the State of California of the Yo-Semite Valley,' and of the Land embracing the Mariposa Big Tree Grove” mandating the state to “accept this grant upon the express conditions that the premises shall be held for public use, resort, and recreation … [and] shall be inalienable for all time.” (S. 203; Public Act No. 159, The Library of Congress American Memory,


J. M. Hutchings, In the Heart of the Sierras (Oakland, CA: Pacific Press Publishing House, 1886).


Ansel Adams and Mary Street Alinder, Ansel Adams: An Autobiography (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985), 67;

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