“Colleges Outline Ethnic Studies Programs and Plans,” Los Angeles Times, April 25, 1969, A28.


cf. Fabio Rojas, From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007): 45–92; Daryl Maeda, Chains of Babylon: The Rise of Asian America (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009): 40–72; Karen Umemoto, “‘On Strike!’ San Francisco State College Strike, 1968–69: The Role of Asian American Students,” Amerasia 15, no. 1 (1989): 3–37; Jason Michael Ferreira, “All Power to the People: A Comparative History of Third World Radicalism in San Francisco, 1968–1974.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California-Berkeley, 2003.


“Cal State L.A. Will Start Ethnic Studies,” Los Angeles Times, January 4, 1969, A13; John Kumbula, “Valley State Agrees to Establish 2 Ethnic Studies Departments,” Los Angeles Times, January 13, 1969, p. A1; Robert Rawitch, “UCLA Creates Culture Project to Research Minority Problems,” Los Angeles Times, January 24, 1969, E1; Scott Moore, “Ethnic Studies Program Unveiled at Cal State,” Los Angeles Times, February 11, 1969. See also: Rodolfo Acuña, The Making of Chicana/o Studies: In the Trenches of Academe (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2011).


For instance, this is central to Mike Murase's assessment of UCLA's ethnic studies programs; Murase argues that the threat of collective student mobilization was enough to obtain ethnic studies as a “conciliatory measure dictated by fear.” Mike Murase, “Ethnic Studies and Higher Education for Asian Americans,” in Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America, Emma Gee, ed. (Los Angeles: Asian American Studies Center, 1976), 208.


Michael Levett, “Tension surrounded fatal day,” and Debbie Ashin, “American Cultures Project announced,” both in Daily Bruin, January 20, 1969, 1; Charles E. Young, “Report On UCLA's Response to the Urban Crisis,” From the Chancellor's Desk, 11 (January 1969), 1. [“Chancellor's Desk” folder, Subject Files, University Archives, University of California – Los Angeles]


Roderick A. Ferguson, The Reorder of Things: The University and Its Pedagogies of Minority Difference (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012).


cf. John Aubrey Douglass, The California Idea and American Higher Education: 1850 to the 1960 Master Plan (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000); Marina Dundjerski, UCLA: The First Century (Los Angeles/London: Third Millennium Publishing, 2011).


Here I am particularly indebted to Uyematsu's kindred argument in her 1989 Amerasia article.


For more on the “urban crisis,” see Scott Kurashige, The Shifting Grounds of Race: Black and Japanese Americans in the Making of Multiethnic Los Angeles (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010); Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003); Thomas J. Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit, Rev. ed. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005 [1996]).

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