NOTES

1.

Letters to Pat Rocco, 8.31.80 and 10.3.80. Box 15, Folder 2. Pat Rocco Papers. ONE National Lesbian and Gay Archives, Los Angeles, California (Hereafter ONE).

2.

The concept of the “long 1970s,” roughly 1968–1984, is borrowed from Bruce Schulman's The Seventies: The Great Shift in American Culture, Society, and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2001).

3.

This project joins recent scholarship on the importance of changing notions of family from the 1960s through the 1980s. See especially: Natasha Zaretsky, No Direction Home: The American Family and the Fear of National Decline (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007), Heather Murray, Not in This Family: Gays and the Meaning of Kinship in Postwar North America (Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), Robert O. Self, All in the Family: The Realignment of American Democracy Since the 1960s (New York: Hill and Wang, 2012), and Daniel Winunwe Rivers, Radical Relations: Lesbian Mothers, Gay Fathers, and Their Children in the United States since World War II (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2013).

4.

Speaking at a campaign event in 1976, California Democratic Gubernatorial candidate Jerry Brown famously asserted that Americans were “living in an era of limits and better get used to it.” Ever since, historians have relied on this descriptor to characterize the 1970s. For example, see Bruce Schulman & Julian Zelizer (eds.), Rightward Bound: Making America Conservative in the 1970s (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).

5.

My use of the “left-liberal” framework is most heavily reliant on Doug Rossinow, Visions of Progress: The Left-Liberal Tradition in America (Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008).

6.

New scholarship has begun to recognize the significance of the 1970s. See especially: Schulman, The Seventies; Edward D. Berkowitz, Something Happened: A Political and Cultural Overview of the Seventies (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006); Jefferson Cowie, Stayin' Alive: The 1970s and the Last Days of the Working Class (New York: The New Press, 2010); Laura Kalman, Right Star Rising: A New Politics, 1974-1980 (New York: Norton, 2010); Judith Stein, Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010); Thomas Borstelmann, The 1970s: A New Global History from Civil Rights to Economic Inequality (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012); and Michael Stewart Foley, Front Porch Politics: The Forgotten Heyday of American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s (New York: Hill and Wang, 2013).

7.

Important primers in the history of Gay Liberation include Martin Duberman, Stonewall (New York: Plume, 1994); David Carter, Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution (New York: St. Martin's, 2004); Tommy Mecca (ed.), Smash the Church, Smash the State!: The Early Years of Gay Liberation (San Francisco: City Lights, 2009); and Benjamin Shepard, “Play as World-making: From the Cockettes to the Germs, Gay Liberation to DIY Activism” in Dan Berger (ed.), The Hidden 1970s: Histories of Radicalism (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2010).

8.

Jennifer Brier, Infectious Ideas: U.S. Political Responses to the AIDS Crisis (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2009).

9.

Useful examples include Donna Murch, Living for the City: Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2010) and Anne Enke, Finding the Movement: Sexuality, Contested Space, and Feminist Activism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007).

10.

Such work includes Martin Meeker, Contacts Desired: Gay and Lesbian Communications and Community, 1940s-1970s (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006) and Marcia M. Gallo, Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement (Emeryville, CA: Seal Press, 2007).

11.

Christina B. Handhart, Safe Space: Gay Neighborhood History and the Politics of Violence (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2013), 84, 90.

12.

On the backlash against housing options for the economically disadvantaged in Los Angeles, see Dana Cuff, The Provisional City: Los Angeles Stories of Architecture and Urbanism (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 2002) and Don Parson, Making a Better World: Public Housing, the Red Scare, and the Direction of Modern Los Angeles (Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 2005).

13.

These “straight” housing policies are part of the larger construction of a “straight state” in the twentieth century. See Margot Canaday, The Straight State: Sexuality and Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009).

14.

United States Mission flier, 1962. Box 1, Folder 5, United States Mission Collection. ONE.

15.

Los Angeles was not the only California locale to attempt this. See Martin Meeker, “The Queerly Disadvantaged and the Making of San Francisco's War on Poverty, 1964-1967,” Pacific Historical Review (January 2012), and Jonathan Bell, “To Strive for Economic and Social Justice: Welfare, Sexuality, and Party Politics in San Francisco in the 1960s,” Journal of Policy History (2010).

16.

Meeker, Contacts Desired.

17.

GCSC Mission Statement, 6.29.72. Box 1, Folder 2. The Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center Records. ONE.

18.

I am borrowing the term from Alice O'Connor, Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth Century U.S. History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

19.

Jon Platania, interview by author, Ian Baldwin, March 2014.

20.

GCSC Mission Statement, 6.29.72. Box 1, Folder 2. The Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center Records. ONE.

21.

Ibid.

22.

Ibid.

23.

“Outreach: The Extended Family,” GCSC newsletter, February, 1973. Author's personal collection.

24.

Jon Platania, interview by author, Ian Baldwin, March 2014.

25.

Phil Tiemeyer, Plane Queer: Labor, Sexuality, and AIDS in the History if Male Flight Attendants (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2013), 117.

26.

Spree News Pictorial, October 1971. Author's personal collection.

27.

Jon Platania, interview by author, Ian Baldwin, March 2014.

28.

For example, see Zaretsky, No Direction Home, Self, All in the Family, and J. Brooks Flippen, Jimmy Carter, the Politics of Family, and the Rise of the Religious Right (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2011).

29.

Notes on Liberation House residents, 1974-76. Box 11, Folder 38. The Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center Records. ONE.

30.

Don Kilhefner to “Friends of the Center,” 12.7.76. Box 14, Folder 8. The Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center Records. ONE.

31.

A few of the varying explanations of Los Angeles' role in the gay rights movement include: Daniel Hurewitz, Bohemian Los Angeles and the Making of Modern Politics (Berkeley: The University of California, 2007), who argues that queer activism in L.A. emerged from bohemian left traditions; and Lillian Faderman and Stuart Timmons, Gay L.A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians (New York: Basic Books, 2006) who both seem to advocate the role of Hollywood and L.A.'s “frontier mentality,” in explaining the city's role.

32.

This conservative campaign was largely directed by the right-wing Hollywood paper, Citizens-News. “Now is the Time,” Citizen-News, January 23, 1962, 14.

33.

L. Jay Barrow, Hollywood: Gay Capitol of the World (Los Angeles: Triumph, 1968); The Advocate, 1969; The Los Angeles Times, 5.20.70. Subject File: Gay Neighborhoods. ONE.

34.

Tom Sitton, The Courthouse Crowd: Los Angeles County Government, 1850-1950 (Los Angeles: The Historical Society of Southern California, 2013).

35.

This is speculated in Faderman and Timmons, Gay L.A., 216.

36.

Jonathan Bell, California Crucible: The Forging of Modern American Liberalism (Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), 279.

37.

Bell, California Crucible, 264.

38.

This literature is vast. See Steven Gillon, The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter Mondale and the Liberal Legacy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992); Alan Brinkley, The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (New York: Vintage, 1996); Todd Gitlin, The Twilight of Common Dreams (New York: Holt, 1996); and David Plotke, Building a Democratic Order: Reshaping American Liberalism in the 1930s and 1940s (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). Bell's California Crucible moves far beyond these accounts, yet has much in common with their notion of liberal “crackup.”

39.

Bell, California Crucible, 264.

40.

See Flippen, Jimmy Carter, the Politics of Family, and the Religious Right. See also Randall Balmer, The Redeemer: The Life of Jimmy Carter (New York: Basic, 2014).

41.

Jim Gilson, interview by author, Ian Baldwin, December 2013.

42.

Rossinow, Visions of Progress.

43.

Stonewall Democratic Club Plank, 1975. Box 1, Folder 20. Stonewall Democratic Club Records. ONE.

44.

The Advocate, 6.20.77. Subject File: Public Housing. ONE.

45.

See Flippen, Jimmy Carter, the Politics of Family, and the Religious Right, 143–44; 173.

46.

The Advocate, 6.20.77. Subject File: Public Housing. ONE.

47.

“Rules Say Gay Couple Can Be a Public-Housing ‘Family’,” San Francisco Examiner, June 16, 1977, 10.

48.

Ibid.

49.

“Gay Couples Will Not be Eligible for Public Housing if Vote Stands,” San Francisco Chronicle, June 25, 1977, 12.

50.

Ibid.

51.

Robert Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).

52.

Jon Platania, interview by author, Ian Baldwin, March 2014.

53.

Hudson House Proposal, 6.29.83. Box 1, Folder 2. Hudson House Records. ONE.

54.

Ibid.

55.

Ibid.

56.

All quoted in Pat Rocco, “The Cold, the Broke, and the Hungry,” Box 1, Folder 3. Hudson House Records. ONE.

57.

Bell, California Crucible, 275–276.

58.

I am borrowing the “grasstops” descriptor from Elizabeth Tandy Shermer, Sunbelt Capitalism: Phoenix and the Transformation of American Politics (Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013).

59.

For example, see Chris Bull & John Gallagher, Perfect Enemies: The Religious Right, the Gay Movement, and the Politics of the 1990s (New York: Random House, 1996).

60.

Jim Gilson to Ed Edelman, 11.27.84. Box 528, Folder 1. The Papers of Ed Edelman. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

61.

B. K. Stinshoff, “The City that ‘Don't’ Get No Respect,” The Post, 11.20.86. Box 3, Folder 16. Robert S. Conrich Collection. Young Research Library, The University of California, Los Angeles.

This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview