NOTES

1.

For more on the idea of immigration as a “process of negotiation” and built on relationships, see Kathleen Neils Conzen, David A. Gerber, Ewa Morawska, George E. Pozzetta, and Rudolph J. Vecoli, “The Invention of Ethnicity: A Perspective from the U.S.A.,” Journal of American Ethnic History 12 (Fall 1992): 4–41. This work frames the invention of ethnicity as a “dual construction” in the nineteenth century and argues that, in the twentieth century, the inventions of citizenship and civil rights were closely linked.

2.

Quoted in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998), 21.

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