The author surveys the work of Helen Mabry Ballard.


The earliest works include those of Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Californians, 1846–1890 (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966); Sherbourne Cook, The Conflict between the California Indian and the White Civilization (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976); Robert Heizer, The California Indians: A Source Book (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972); and George Phillips, Chiefs and Challengers: Indian Resistance and Cooperation in Southern California, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975).


Such works included, among others: Lisbeth Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769–1936 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); Robert H. Jackson and Edward Castillo, Indians, Franciscans and Spanish Colonization: The Impact of the Mission System on the California Indians (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995); Randall Milliken, A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769–1810 (Ballena Press, 1995); James Sandos, Converting California: Indians and Franciscans in the Missions (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004); Stephen Silliman, Lost Laborers in Colonial California: Native Americans and the Archaeology of Rancho Petaluma (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2004); Steve Hackel, Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769–1850 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005); and Barbara Voss, The Archaeology of Ethnogenesis: Race and Sexuality in Colonial San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).


Robert Heizer, The Destruction of the California Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1974); Jack Norton, Genocide in Northwestern California: When Our Worlds Cried (San Francisco: Indian Historian Press, 1979); Estle Beard and Lynwood Carranco, Genocide and Vendetta: The Round Valley Wars of Northern California (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1981); Albert Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988); and Clifford Trafzer and Joel Hyer, Exterminate Them: Written Accounts of the Murder, Rape, and Enslavement of Native Americans during the California Gold Rush (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1999).


These include Lisbeth Haas, Pablo Tac, Indigenous Scholar: Writing on Luiseño Language and Colonial History, c.1840, Including the Complete Manuscript of Pablo Tac (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011); Lee M. Panich, “Missionization and the Persistence of Native Identity on the Colonial Frontier of Baja California,” Ethnohistory 57 (2010): 225–262; George Phillips, Vineyards and Vaqueros: Indian Labor and the Economic Expansion of Southern California, 1771–1877 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2010); Ben Madley, “California's Yuki Indians: Defining Genocide in American Indian History,” Western Historical Quarterly 39 (2008): 303–333; Michael Magliari, “Free State Slavery: Bound Indian Labor and Slave Trafficking in California's Sacramento Valley” (2012); Boyd Cothran, “Working the Indian Field Days: The Economy of Authenticity and the Question of Agency in Yosemite Valley,” American Indian Quarterly 34 (2010): 199–223; and Albert Hurtado, John Sutter: A Life on the North American Frontier (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006).


Nick Rosenthal, Reimagining Indian Country: Native American Migration and Identity in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012) and William Bauer, “We Were All Migrant Workers Here”: Community and Memory on California's Round Valley Reservation, 1850–1941 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009).


Lynn Gamble, The Chumash World at European Contact: Power, Trade, and Feasting among Complex Hunter-Gatherers (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2008); Jeanne Arnold, The Origins of a Pacific Coast Chiefdom: The Chumash of the Channel Islands (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2001); and Terry Jones & Kathryn Klar, eds., California Prehistory: Colonization, Culture, and Complexity (Lanham, MD: Altamira Press, 2007).


See examples such as James Brooks, Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2002); Julianna Barr, Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007); Pekka Hämäläinen, The Comanche Empire (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008); Michael Witgen, An Infinity of Nations: How the Native New World Shaped Early North America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012). Studies that look at Natives inhabiting present-day Nevada, Arizona, Baja, Sonora, Utah, and Oregon include Ned Blackhawk, Violence Over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006); Jeff Shepherd, We Are An Indian Nation: A History of the Hualapai People (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2010); and Gray Whaley, Oregon and the Collapse of Illahee: U.S. Empire and the Transformation of an Indigenous World, 1792–1859 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010). Similarly, David Igler's recent work, The Great Ocean: Pacific Worlds from Captain Cook to the Gold Rush (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), brings coastal California Native networks into larger Pacific Basin currents.


Christopher Chase-Dunn and Kelly M. Mann in The Wintu & Their Neighbors: A Very Small World-System in Northern California (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998), for example, argue that non-state societies in Native California actually engaged in complex, interconnected economic systems that existed alongside the encroaching European American world-system. M. Kat Anderson's Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California's Natural Resources (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005) explores indigenous patterns of land use, food cultivation, and ecological management in parts of Native California not directly influenced by European American development.