Notes

Notes
1
Najia Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, African Americans, and Racial Anxiety in the United States, 1848-82 (Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2003), 105-7;
Robert J. Chandler, "Friends in Time of Need: Republicans and Black Civil Rights in California during the Civil War," Journal of the Southwest 24, no. 4 (Winter 1982), 336-7;
Eugene Berwanger, The West and Reconstruction (Urbana-Champaign: Univer- sity of Illinois Press, 1981), 202-5;
Alexan- der Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971), 81-88;
Joshua Paddison's recent monograph American Heathens: Religion, Race, and Reconstruction in California (Berke- ley: University of California and Huntington Library Press, 2012)
2
William T. de Bary, Sources of Chinese Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 326.
3
Kenneth M. Johnson's introductory essay in the 1967 book The Sting of the Wasp: Politi- cal and Satirical Cartoons from the Truculent Early San Francisco Weekly (San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1967).
Roger Olmsted's article "The Cigar Box Papers: A Local View of the Centennial Electoral Scan- dals," California Historical Quarterly 55, no. 3 (Fall 1976): 256-69
"The Wasp: Stinging Editorials and Political Cartoons," Bancroftiana 121 (Fall 2002),
Richard Samuel West's The San Francisco Wasp: An Illustrated History (Easthampton: Periodyssey Press, 2004),
Mary Rob- erts Coolidge's Chinese Immigration (New York: Arno Books, 1909),
Elmer Sandmey- er's The Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1939)
The Unwelcome Immigrant: The American Image of the Chinese (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969),
The Indispensable Enemy (1971)
Gwendo- lyn Mink's Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party and State, 1875-1920 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986),
Robert Lee's Orientals: Asian Americans in Popular Culture (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999),
Murphy's "The Look of a Citizen: Images of Immigration in Gilded Age Painting and Popular Press Illustration" (PhD Diss., University of Minnesota, 2007),
"Western History and the Pacific World," The Western Historical Quarterly 43, no. 3 (Autumn 2012): 282-88.
Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berke- ley: University of California Press, 1994),
Nayan Shah's Con- tagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco's Chinatown (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).
4
Johnson, The Sting of the Wasp, 2, 4;
5
Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War against Chinese Americans (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 2008)
Scott Zesch's recent monograph, The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
6
Linda Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduc- tion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001);
Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002).
7
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 26.
8
Ed Salzman and Ann Leigh Brown, The Cartoon History of California Politics (Sacra- mento: California Journal Press, 1978), 16.
9
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 5-6.
10
Johnson, "The Wasp," 434;
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 26.
11
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 214.
12
Olmsted, "The Cigar Box Papers," 258.
13
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 3-4.
14
Johnson, The Sting of the Wasp, 304;
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 3-4.
15
Rich- ard Bensel, Yankee Leviathan: The Origins of Central State Authority in America (London: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
16
Olmsted, "The Cigar Box Papers," 259.
17
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 2.
18
Ibid., 27.
19
The San Francisco Illustrated Wasp, Oct. 30, 1880.
20
The San Francisco Illustrated Wasp, Dec. 16, 1881.
21
The Mormon Graphic Image, 1834-1914: Cartoons, Caricatures, and Illustrations (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1983), 27;
22
The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nine- teenth Century (Washington, DC: Smithson- ian Institution, 1990).
23
The San Francisco Illustrated Wasp, Feb. 8, 1879.
24
The cartoon's accompanying editorial explains that "Uncle Sam's capacious bed holds a great variety of bed-fellows;
The San Francisco Illustrated Wasp, Feb. 8, 1879, 435.
25
Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: Norton, 1985).
26
Rudolph M. Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995).
Roger Lotchin, Fortress California, 1910-1961: From Warfare to Welfare (Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2002);
Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005);
Josh Sides, L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Pres- ent (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), and Douglas Flamming, Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).
27
David Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of America's Working Class (New York: Verso, 1991), particularly chapter 6;
Eric Lott, "White Like Me: Racial Cross-Dressing and the Construction of American Whiteness," in Cultures of United States Imperialism, ed. Amy Kaplan (Durham: Duke University Press, 1994);
Michael Rogin, "Blackface White Noise: The Jewish Jazz Singer Finds His Voice," Critical Inquiry 18, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 417-53.
28
Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, Afri- can Americans, and Racial Anxiety, 24-27.
29
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 40.
30
Kad- dida Williams, They Left Great Marks on Me: African American Testimonies of Racial Vio- lence from Emancipation to World War I (New York: New York University Press, 2012)
Hannah Rosen, Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009).
31
Ian F. Haney Lopez, White hy Law: The Legal Construction of Race (New York: New York University Press, 1997).
32
Kevin Starr, California: A History (New York: Modern Library, 2005), 97-98.
33
Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1998), 79-83.
34
Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
35
Karen Leong, The China Mystique: Pearl S. Buck, Anna May Wong, Mayling Soong, and the Transformation of American Orientalism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 8.
36
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 4.
37
Pfaelzer, Driven Out.
38
Deverell, Railroad Crossing, 36.
39
Alexander Saxton in The Rise and Fall of the White Republic: Class Politics and Mass Culture in Nineteenth Century America (New York: Verso, 1990).
41
Ngai, "Western History and the Pacific World." Moon-Ho Jung's Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2006),
Lucy M. Cohen, Chinese in the Post-Civil War South: A People without a History (Baton Rouge: Loui- siana State University Press, 1984);
James W. Loewen, The Mississippi Chinese: Between Black and White (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971);
Shih-shan Henry Tsai, "The Chinese in Arkansas," Amerasia Journal 8 (1981): 1-18;
Arthur Bonner, Alas! What Brought Thee Hither?: The Chinese in New York, 1800-3950 (Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997).
42
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 36-37.
43
Hayes' veto message printed in The Bos- ton Globe, Mar. 2, 1879.
45
New York Tribune, Mar. 20, 1879.
46
New York Tribune, Sept.20, 1880.
47
Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (London: Piccadilly, 1884).
48
Peggy Pascoe, What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).
49
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 113-14.
Eric Foner, Reconstruction: Ameri- ca's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (New York: HarperCollins, 1988), 583-85.
50
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 17, 112.
51
Pfaelzer, Driven Out, 77-78;
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 118-19.
52
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 14-15.
53
Foner, Reconstruction, 559-63.
54
New York Times, Aug. 21, 1879.
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 139-40.
55
West, The San Francisco Wasp, 20.
56
The San Francisco Illustrated Wasp, Aug. 30, 1884.
57
The San Francisco Illustrated Wasp, Mar. 24, 1882.
58
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 124-27.
59
Carl Swisher, Motivation and Political Technique in the California Constitutional Convention, 1878-1879 (Pomona: Pomona College Political Science Monograph Series, 1930), 21.
60
Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy, 146, 152, 171.
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