Friday, Sept. 4. I empanelled to-day the first jury ever summoned in California. The plaintiff and defendant are among the principal citizens of the country. The case was one involving property on the one side, and integrity of character on the other. Its merits had been pretty widely discussed, and had called forth unusual interest. Onethird of the jury were Mexicans, one-third Californians, and the other third Americans. This mixture may have the better answered the ends of justice, but I was apprehensive at one time it would embarrass the proceedings; for the plaintiff spoke in English, the defendant in French, the jury, save the Americans, Spanish, and the witnesses all of the languages known to California. But through the silent attention which prevailed, the tact of Mr. Hartnell, who acted as interpreter, and the absence of young lawyers, we got along very well. The examination of the witnesses lasted five or six hours; I then gave the case to the jury, stating the questions of fact upon which they were to render their verdict. They retired for an hour, and then returned, when the foreman handed in their verdict, which was clear and explicit, though the case itself was rather complicated. To this verdict, both parties bowed without a word of dissent. The inhabitants who witnessed the trial, said it was what they liked—that there could be no bribery in it—that the opinion of twelve honest men should set the case forever at rest. And so it did, though neither party completely triumphed in the issue. One recovered his property, which had been taken from him by mistake, the other his character, which had been slandered by design. If there is anything on earth besides religion for which I would die, it is the right of trial by jury.


Walter Colton, Three Years in California (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1949), 17; facsimile of the first edition (New York: A.S. Barnes, 1850),
H. Bancroft, "History of California, vol. 5, 1846-1848," The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, vol. 22 (Boston: Elibron Classics, 2004), 289n1;
Theodore H. Hittell, History of California (San Francisco: N. J. Stone, 1897), 2:590;
Zoeth S. Eldredge, ed., History of Cali- fornia (New York: Century History, n.d.), 3:88-89;
Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., The Trials of Isaac Graham (Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop, 1967), 46-58;
William Henry Ellison, A Self-Governing Dominion, Califor- nia 1849-1860 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1950), 12-13;
J. M. Guinn, History of the State of California and Biographical Record of Coast Counties, California (Chicago: Chapman, 1904), 150;
Clifford M. Drury, "Walter Colton, Chaplain and Alcalde," California Historical Society Quarterly 35, no. 2 (1956), 97;
Josiah Royce, California: From the Conquest in 1846 to the Second Vigilance Committee in San Francisco (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1987), 186n2 (passing reference only);
Nellie Van de Grift Sanchez, "The Spanish Period," in Califor- nia and Calif ornians, ed. Rockwell D. Hunt (Chicago: Lewis Publishing, 1926), 172;
Woodrow J. Hansen, The Search for Author- ity in California (Oakland: Biobooks, i960), 74.
Franklin Tuthill, The History of California (San Francisco: H. H. Bancroft & Company, 1866), 214.
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 47n4, and infra, 23.
Thomas O. Larkin, "Notes on the Personal Character of the Principal Men" (n.d., prob- ably April 20, 1846), in The Larkin Papers, ed. George P. Hammond (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 1955), 4:325-29;
Thomas O. Larkin, "Names of the British Subjects, and Citizens of the United States Who Resided in Alta California," repr. in First and Last Consul: Thomas Oliver Larkin and the Americanization of California, ed. John A. Hawgood (Palo Alto: Pacific Books, 1970), 109-18;
David J. Langum Sr., Law and Community on the Mexican California Frontier (Los Californianos Antepasados, Vol. XIII) (San Diego: Banard Lithogra- phers, 2006): 17-29.
Miroslava Chávez-Garcia, Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s (Tuc- son: University of Arizona Press, 2004);
Lis- beth Haas, Conquest and Historical Identities in California, 1769-1936 (Berkeley: Univer- sity of California Press, 1995);
Langum, Law and Community, 232-42
Richard R. Powell, Compromises of Conflicting Claims: A Century of California Law, 1760-1860 (Dobbs Ferry: Oceanea, 1977), 49.
"Speech by Carlos Antonio Carrillo, Deputy for Upper Califor- nia to the Chamber of Deputies, Requesting the Establishment of Adequate Courts for the Administration of Justice" in The Com- ing of Justice to California: Three Documents, ed. John Galvin, trans. Adelaide Smithers (San Francisco: John Howell, 1963), 49-62.
Langum, Law and Community, 35-40.
Michael Gonzalez, "War and the Making of History: The Case of Mexican California, 1821-1846," California History 86, no. 2 (2009), 10.
ibid., 23
Theodore Grivas, "Alcalde Rule, The Nature of Local Government in Spanish and Mexican California," California Historical Society Quarterly 40, no. 1 (Mar. 1961), 11;
Powell, Compromises of Conflicting Claims, 29-30.
R. A. Wilson, The Alcalde System of Cali- fornia (1851) 1 Cal. 559.
Langum, Law and Community, 97-104
Chávez-Garcia, Negotiating Conquest, 29.
Don- ald Munro Craig, ed., William Robert Garner, Letters from California 1846-1847 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970), 30.
Langum, Law and Community, 213-31.
Langum, Law and Community, 138-52.
Langum, Law and Community, 130;
"The days of '46: ms: recollections of William Baldridge, 1877," 32, William Baldridge, dictated to Lovisa Thompson, MSS C-D 36, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
Bancroft, History of California, 5:60-63, 207-23;
Harlan Hague and David J. Langum, Thomas O. Larkin: A Life of Patrio- tism and Profit in Old California (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990), 1-2, 8, 102, 113-15;
Robert Glass Cleland, "The Early Sentiment for the Annexation of Cali- fornia: An Account of the Growth of Ameri- can Interest in California, 1835-1846," The Southwestern Historical Quarterly 18, no. 3 (Jan. 1915): 231-47;
Oscar Lewis, ed., Cali- fornia in 1846 (San Francisco: The Grabhorn Press, 1934), ix;
Thomas O. Larkin to Faxon Dean Atherton, Oct. 20-21, 1842, in Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., ed., "Six New Larkin Letters," Southern California Quarterly 49, no. 1 (Mar. 1967), 69, 83;
Thomas O. Larkin to "Journal of Commerce," July 1845, in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 3:292-96;
Reuben L. Underhill, From Cowhides to Golden Fleece: A Narrative of California, 1832-1858, Based upon Unpublished Correspondence of Thomas Oliver Larkin, Trader, Developer, Promoter, and only American Consul (Stanford: Stan- ford University Press, 1939), 96-99;
Joseph de Rosamel, Upper California, in William F. Shepard, "California Prior to Conquest: A Frenchman's View," California Histori- cal Society Quarterly 37, no.1 (1958), 71.
Joseph W Revere, A Tour of Duty in California (New York: C. S. Francis, 1849), 24-30.
"Operations of the Pacific Squadron. Despatches [sic] of Commodore Sloat, Containing an account of his proceedings on the west coast of Mexico," Executive Documents, 30th Congress, 2nd Session, 1848-49, Ex. Doc. No. 1, at 75-76.
John D. Sloat to George Bancroft, at sea aboard the Flag Ship Levant, July 31, 1846, repr. in House Executive Documents, 29th Congress, 2nd Session, 1846-47, Vol. 3, No. 19, at 99-101 and in House Documents, Reports, 29th Congress, 2nd Session, 1846- 47, Vol. 1, Document 4, at 640.
Bancroft, History of California, 5:231. Information about Rodman's and Gilchrist's billets is taken from Edwin A. Sherman, The Life of the Late Rear Admiral John Sloat of the United States Navy (Oakland: Carruth & Carruth, 1902), addenda to the appendix.
"Operations of the Pacific Squadron," 1008.
House Documents, Reports, 29th Con- gress, 2nd Session, 1846-1847, Volume 1, Document 4, No. 3, at 669-70, repr. as "To the People of California," The Californian, Sept. 5, 1846, bin/cdnc?a=d&d=C18460905.2.3&cl=searc h&e=05-09-1846-13-09-1846-en-20-1-txt- IN-The+Califomian, and in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 5:175.
Craig, William Robert Garner, Letters from California, 38;
Bancroft, History of California, 5:235n29.
Rodman M. Price." Compare Bancroft, History of California, 5:254 and 5:288.
Timothy J. Demy, "An Analysis of the Life and Ministry of Walter Colton (1797-1851): Congregational Minister and United States Navy Chaplain" (ThD thesis, Dallas Theolog- ical Seminary, 1990), 81.
Henry T. Cheever's memoir in Walter Colton, The Sea and the Sailor, Notes on France and Italy (New York: A. S. Barnes, 1856), 337-437,
Wal- ter Larsen, "Walter Colton: Yankee Alcalde" (master's thesis, University of California Los Angeles, 1950).
Demy, "Life and Ministry of Walter Colton," 85-98.
Ibid., 99.
Ibid., 109-11.
Ibid., 112-13.
Drury, "Walter Colton," 98-103.
Walter Colton, Deck and Port; or Incidents of a Cruise in the United States Frigate Con- gress to California (New York: A. S. Barnes, 1850), 323 (June 7), 349 (June 21).
Samuel J. Bayard, A Sketch of the Life of Commodore Robert Stockton (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1856), 104-9.
Bayard, Life of Commodore Robert Stockton, 107-8.
Colton, Three Years in California, 19.
Duncan Gleason, "James Henry Gleason: Pioneer Journal and Letters, 1841-1856," Historical Society of Southern California Quar- terly 31, no. 1 (Mar. 1949), 32.
ibid., 21-22, 30-31.
William Heath Davis, Seventy-five Years in California (San Francisco: John Howell, 1929), 188, 192.
Florencio Serrano, "Apuntes para la Historia de la Alta California" (Berkeley: Bancroft Library, 1877), 118
Larkin to Jacob Leese, July 29, 1846;
Lar- kin to Abel Stearns, Aug. 6, 1846;
Larkin to Archibald Gillespie, Sept. 16, 1846, in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 5:178; 5:184 (departure); 5:238 (return).
Craig, William Robert Garner, Letters from California, 38.
"Biographical Sketches: Obituary of William R. Garner—A Pioneer of 1826—Sketch of His Life," San Jose Pioneer, Apr. 27, 1878.
Craig, William Robert Garner, Letters from California, 5-37.
Craig, William Robert Garner, Letters from California, 38-39. Serrano ("Apuntes," 118) concurs that Garner was a great help to Colton.
"Laws," The Californian, Aug. 29, 1846.
Colton, Three Years in California, 41.
Ibid., 36, 39.
"Notice," The Californian, Aug. 15, 1846; rep. Aug. 22, 1846; Aug. 29, 1846; Sept. 5, 1846; Sept.12, 1846.
"Aviso" issued by Captain Mervine, July 15, 1846, Mexican Archives, 13:1257.
"To The People of California," The Califor- nian, Sept. 5, 1846.
Larkin to James Stokes, July 17, 1846, Larkin to Jose Bolcoff, July 20, 1846 in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 5:139, 5:147.
Zoeth S. Eldredge, The Beginnings of San Francisco (New York: John C. Ranking, 1912), 545;
Marius A. Duvall, A Navy Sur- geon in California 1846-1847: The Journal of Marius Duvall, ed. Fred Blackburn Rogers (San Francisco: John Howell, 1957), 56;
Ban- croft, A History of California, 5:295.
Joseph T. Downey, The Cruise of the Ports- mouth: A Sailor's View of the Naval Conquest of California, 1845-1847, ed. Howard R. Lamar (New York: Yale University Press, 1958), 146.
Downey, Cruise of the Portsmouth, 146-47.
Fred Blackburn Rogers, ed., Filings from an Old Saw: Reminiscences of San Francisco and California's Conquest, by "Filings"—Joseph T. Downey (San Francisco: John Howell, 1956), 53-54.
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 46.
Starr P. Gurke, "Translations of Pre- Statehood Documents: Villa de Branciforte," 75, MS-8, Folder 2:2
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 119.
Isaac Graham v. Tillatha C. Bennett (1852) 2 Cal. 503.
Skip Littlefield, "Isaac Graham: The Rifle- Toting Firebrand of the Zayante," Santa Cruz Sentinel, Mar. 3, 1985.
Skip Littlefield, "Isaac Graham: Mountain Man Becomes Ship Builder," Santa Cruz Sentinel, Mar. 10, 1985.
51 Orchard-Kentucky.html.
Dorothy A. Hertzog, "Isaac Graham: Cali- fornia Pioneer" (master's thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1941), 1-10;
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 8-9.
Hertzog, "Isaac Graham: California Pio- neer," 10-15;
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 6-9.
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 12-15
Hertzog, "Isaac Graham: California Pioneer," 8-18.
Hertzog, "Isaac Graham: California Pio- neer," 17.
J. Gregg Layne, "The First Census of the Los Angeles District," Historical Society of Southern California 18, no. 3 (1936), 84, 90.
Susanna Bryant Dakin, The Lives of William Hartnell (Stanford: Stanford University Press: 1949), 210-11;
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 21-22.
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 19;
Irving B. Richman, California Under Spain and Mexico, 1535-1847 (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1911), 266;
Edward S. Harrison, History of Santa Cruz County, California (San Francisco: Pacific Press, 1892), 200.
Bancroft (History of California, 4:2-35)
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 34.
Sherwood D. Burgess, "Lumbering in Hispanic California," California Histori- cal Society Quarterly 41, no. 3 (1962), 244 (bought from Peter Lassen);
Hertzog, "Isaac Graham: California Pioneer," 74-75 (built).
Larkin, "A Report to the U.S. Govern- ment: California in 1846 and its Resources as Then Known," 2 and 15, repr. in Lewis, California in 1846, 1-16.
Lewis, California in 1846, 1-16;
Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., ed., Joseph Belden, 1841 California Overland Pioneer: His Memoir and Early Let- ters (Georgetown: Talisman Press, 1962), 59.
Bancroft, History of California, 5:705.
Daniel Lévy, Les français en Californie (San Francisco: Grégoire, Tauzy, 1884), 65.
Annick Foucrier, La rêve Californien: Migrants français sur la côte Pacifique, XVIIIe-Xxe siècles (Paris: Belin, 1999), 40, 52.
Ibid., 52.
Robert H. Jack- son, "The 1845 Villa de Branciforte Census," Antepasados 4 (1981), 45.
Warren A. Beck and Ynez D. Haase, Historical Atlas of California (Norman: Uni- versity of Oklahoma Press, 1974), Plate 30.
Annick Foucrier, "Sailors, Carpenters, Vineyardists: The French Pioneers in Santa Cruz," Santa Cruz County History Journal 3 (1997), 138, 142. On Sept. 10, 1847,
Mexican Archives, 13:301.
Santa Cruz Sentinel, Aug. 5, 1865.
Leon Rowland, Santa Cruz: The Early Years (Santa Cruz: Paper Vision, 1980), 55.
Foucrier, La rêve californien, 62. Bancroft says 1844;
Ban- croft, History of California, 5:708.
"Circuit Rider," Santa Cruz Sentinel-News, Dec. 13, 1942.
Langum, Law and Community, 226-31.
Stockton to Johnson, Aug. 25, 1846, in Robert Field Stockton, Letter Books and Miscellaneous Materials, 1846-47, 106.
Jona- than Boniface, The Cavalry Horse and His Pack (Kansas City: Hudson-Kimberly, 1903), 91 (60-75 miles Per day without chang- ing horses), 229-32
Colton, Three Years in California, 47.
Leon Rowland, "California's First Jury Trial," in Leon Rowland's Scrapbook, 252, Leon and Jeannette Rowland Collection, MS 051, UCSC.
Mexican Archives, 8:802.
Colton, Three Years in California, 47.
The Californian, Sept. 19, 1846.
Downey, The Cruise of the Portsmouth, 23117.
John Adams Hussey, "New Light Upon Talbot H. Green," California Historical Society Quarterly 18, no.1 (1939): 39-63;
Davis, Seventy-five Years in California, 226-27;
Zoeth Skinner Eldredge, Beginnings of San Francisco, 580-81.
Bancroft, History of California, 4:715.
Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., The Bidwell- Bartleson Party (Santa Cruz: Western Tana- ger, 1991), 203.
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Californians, 1846-1890 (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 1998), XV, 7.
Bancroft, History of California, 5:35n9.
Dakin, Lives of William Hartnell, 33-35;
Bancroft, History of California, 4:728.
Langum, Law and Com- munity, 40-42.
Davis, Seventy- five Years in California, 391;
Robert G. Cowan, Ranchos of California (Fresno: Acad- emy Library Guild, 1956), 61.
Marie E. Northrop, Spanish-Mexican Families of Early California: 1769-1850 (Burbank: Southern California Genealogical Society, 1984), 2:1-2;
Bancroft, History of California, 2:686, 4:97, 557-58.
Rockwell D. Hunt, California Firsts (San Francisco: Fearon, 1957), 243-44.
Florencio Serrano, Testimonios de Floren- cio Serrano, trans. William Wilkinson (n.p.: Booksurge, 2009), 12-14 (introduction by William Wilkinson), 105;
Bancroft, History of California, 5:716-17;
Edna E. Kimbro and Anthony Crosby, "Casa Serrano: Limited Historic Structure Report: Preliminary Review Copy, July 1, 1999, Monterey County Public Library History Room.
Larkin, "Notes on Personal Character of the Principal Men," in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 4:326.
Bancroft, History of Cali- fornia, 2:780.
Bancroft, History of California, 4:752.
Langum, Law and Community, 217.
Bancroft, History of California, 5:711;
Cowan, Ranchos of California 83;
Wallace Elliott & Moore, History of Monterey County with Biographical Sketches of Prominent Citi- zens (San Francisco: Pacific Press, 1881), 140.
Stephan Landsman, "The Civil Jury in America: Scenes from an Unappreciated History," Hastings Law Journal 44 (Mar. 1993), 579, 582.
Leonard W. Levy, The Palladium of Justice: Origins of Trial by Jury (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1999), 53.
Sir William Blackstone, quoted by Mr. Justice Strong in Strauder v. West Virginia, 100 U.S. 303, 308 (1880).
Landsman, "The Civil Jury in America," 592.
Harold M. Hyman and Catherine M. Tarrant, "Aspects of American Trial Jury History," in The Jury System in America: A Critical Overview, ed. Rita James Simon (Bev- erly Hills & London: Sage, 1975), 35.
Parsons v. Bedford, 28 U.S. (3 Pet.) 433, 446 (1830).
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, trans. Henry Reeve (New York: D. Appleton, 1904), 1:302.
Ibid., 307.
John Phillip Reid, Law for the Elephant: Property and Social Behavior on the Overland Trail (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1997).
John Phillip Reid, Policing the Elephant: Crime, Punishment and Social Behavior on the Overland Trail (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1997), 117-32.
"Jury," in Encyclopaedia America, ed. Francis Lieber (Philadelphia, PAA: Lea and Blanchard, 1845), VII, 286-93 (written by Justice Joseph Story according to his son, William W. Story, in Life and Letters of Joseph Story [London: John Chap- man, 1851], 27);
Francis X. Busch, Law and Tactics in Jury Trials (Indianapolis: Bobbs- Merrill, 1949), 27-29, 36-37, 78-86;
Joseph H. Choate, "Trial By Jury" (address to the American Bar Association, Aug. 18, 1898), repr. in Joseph Hodges Choate, American Addresses (New York: Century, 1911), 197.
People of the State of Michigan v. Harold Barltz, 180 N.W. 423 (1930)
"Annota- tion: Conferring Right of Suffrage Upon Women as Qualifying Them as Jurors," American Law Reports 12 (1921), 525
American Law Reports 16 (1922), 1154,
"Eligibility of Women as Jurors," American Law Reports 157 (1945), 461.
John H. Langbein, Renee Lettow Lerner, and Bruce P. Smith, History of the Common Law: The Development of Anglo- American Legal Institutions (Austin: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, Aspen Publishers: 2009), 536.
William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England (1768; repr., Buffalo: Wil- liam S. Hein, 1992), Book Three, 352-54;
Francis X. Busch, Law and Tactics in Jury Trials, 78-80;
J. H. Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History, 4th ed. (London: Butterworths Tolley, 2002), 509 (criminal cases).
Busch, Law and Tactics, 96-97;
Hiroshi Fukurai, "Embrac- ing Affirmative Jury Selection for Racial Fairness," Racial Issues in Criminal Justice: The Case of African Americans, ed. Marvin D. Free, Jr. (Westport: Praeger, 2003), 241-45.
Respublica v. Mesca, 1 Dall. 73, 1 US L.Ed. 42 (Pa. Supreme Court 1783);
United States v. Carnot, 25 F. Cas. 297, 1834 U.S. App. Lexis 418, 2 Cranch C.C. 469 (D.C. Cir. 1824).
People v. Chin Mook Sow (1877) 51 Cal. 597.
Hague and Langum, Thomas O. Lar- kin, 77-81.
Busch, Law and Tactics, 101-31;
Barry Goode, "Religion, Politics, Race, and Ethnic- ity: The Range and Limits of Voir Dire," Kentucky Law Journal 92 (2004), 601, 602-6;
Baker, Introduction to English Legal History, 509 (criminal cases).
Busch, Law and Tactics, 36, 171.
Gonzalez, "War and the Making of His- tory," 14.
Hague and Langum, Thomas O. Larkin, 126;
Langum, Law and Community, 136.
Donald M. Howard, Cowpath to Main Drag: Monterey's Alvarado Street, A Business History 3830-3930 (Pacific Grove: Monterey Peninsula Historiography Chronicles, 1996).
Hartnell's advertisement in the first edition of The Calif ornian, Aug. 15, 1846, offering his services at his house in Monterey.
Davis, Seventy-five Years in California, 16-17.
Colton, The California Diary (Oakland: Biobooks, 1948), 235;
Howard, Cowpath to Main Drag, 248.
Northrop, Spanish Mexican Families, 1-2, 77-80, 156.
Sanchez, California and Californios, 2:43;
Bancroft, History of California, 4:266-68.
Bancroft, History of California, 4:307.
William F. Swasey, The Early Days and Men of California (Oakland: Pacific Press Publishing Co., 1891), 57-58.
Bancroft, History of California, 5:41n21.
Ibid., 5:224n1.
Florencio Serrano, "List of Families with Boys in the Monterey Public School," Sept. 17, 1846, in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 5:239.
Dakin, Lives of William Hartneil, 178.
Ibid., 98.
Ibid., 273-74.
Dakin, Lives of William Hartneil, 273-74;
Bancroft, A History of California, 5:292.
The Californian, Aug. 15 and 29, 1846.
"Florencio Serrano and Francisco Arias to Thomas Oliver Larkin," July 3, 1846, in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 5:99.
Colton, Three Years in California, 47.
The Californian, Sept. 26, 1846.
Colton, Three Years in California, 200.
Bancroft (History of Cali- fornia, 4:565)
Gleason, "James Henry Gleason: Pioneer Journal and Letters," 21-22.
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 5n6, 7n11, 34.
Jackson, "The 1845 Villa de Branciforte Census," 53.
Swasey, Early Days and Men, 34-39.
Mexican Archives, 8:819.
Jackson, "The 1845 Villa de Branci- forte Census," 52.
Burgess, "Lumbering in Hispanic California," 239;
Bancroft, A History of California, 4:33n58;
Jackson, "The 1839 Villa de Branciforte Census," 53.
Rowland, "Santa Cruz Gave California Its First Jury Trial," Santa Cruz Evening News, Oct. 28, 1933.
Helen Collins, "Maria Susana del Carmen King y Juarez," Antepasados 7 (1986-87), 41;
Sara A. Bun- nett, Marion Pokriots, and W. Dean Reyn- olds, Record Books of the Alcaldes of Santa Cruz, California 1847-1850 and April Term 1851 (Santa Cruz: Genealogical Society of Santa Cruz County, 1992);
Bancroft, History of California, 4:17;
Josiah Beiden to Thomas O. Larkin, Aug. 7, 1842, in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 262-63.
Bancroft, History of California, 4:751;
Nunis, Trials of Isaac Graham, 33-35, 43-45.
Rowland, "Santa Cruz Gave California Its First fury Trial," 12.
Colton, Three Years in California, 48.
Mexican Archives, 13:275.
The Californian, Sept. 12, 1846.
Nunis, The Trials of Isaac Graham, 55n20.
Craig, William Robert Garner, Letters from California, 22.
The Californian, Sept. 12, 1846.
The Californian, Sept. 19, 1846.
Ibid., 32.
Ibid., 43.
Paul Parker, "The First Jury Trial in California," Salinas Independent, Oct. 25, 1935.
The American Insurance Company et al. v. 356 Bales of Cotton, 26 U.S. (1 Pet.) 511 (1828);
Strother v. Lucas, 37 U.S. (12 Pet.) 410, 9 L. Ed. 1137 (1838);
Rockwell D. Hunt, "Legal Status of California," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sci- ences 12 (Nov. 1898), 65.
Samuel H. Willey, "Recollections of General Halleck, As Secretary of State in Monterey, 1847-9," The Overland Monthly 9, no. 1 (July 1872): 12.
People v. Folsom (1855) 5 Cal. 373, 379-80
House Documents, Reports, 29th Con- gress, 2nd Session, 1846-1847, Volume 1, Document 4, No. 3, 669-70, repr. as "To the People of California," The Californian, Sept. 5, 1846, and in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 5:175.
W. L. Marcy to Gen- eral Stephen Kearny, "California and New Mexico, Message from the President of the United States," House Executive Docu- ments, 31st Congress, 1st Session, No. 17, 245-47.
ibid., 244-45.
"Prospects of Califor- nia," The Californian, Aug. 15, 1846;
Cali- fornia Star, June 19 and 26, 1847;
Woodrow James Hansen, Search for Authority in Cali- fornia (Oakland: Biobooks, 1960), 76-79.
"California and New Mexico," 452;
Mexi- can Archives, 13:1769.
Larkin to the New York Herald, June 1, 1847, quoted in Bancroft, History of Califor- nia, 5:608n26.
Hittell, History of California, 590.
Colton, California Diary, 215-16.
California Star (June 19, 1847)
Richard Henry Dana, Jr., Two Years Before the Mast (New York: Signet Classic, 1964), 161.
Layne, "The First Census of the Los Angeles District," 84, 90.
Three Years in California, 402, books?id=XzsVAAAAYAAJ&printsec= frontcover&dq=three+years+in+California+ colton&source=bl&ots=osHoiRDrox&sig= _5Jn54ZbxDd-ZWxbjtGO_7bB2I&hl=en& sa=X&ei=PluDUInvG 6_wiQLH81G4Aw& ved=oCC8Q6AEwAA.
William A. Leidesdorff to Thomas A. Larkin, June 19, 1846, in Hammond, The Larkin Papers, 5:56.
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