Notes

Notes
1
Travis A. Koch, "Farmers and the Federal Government: Progressive-Era Rural Reform and the Origins of Modern Agriculture in America," seminar paper, April 2012, 18-21
Report of the Commission on Country Life, 23 January 1909, 19, University of Cali- fornia Digital Library, http://archive.org/ details/reportofcommissioounitiala;
Kenyon Leech Butterfield, Chapters in Rural Prog- ress (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1908), 53, 59.
2
"Inquiry To Open On Farm Labor," Los Angeles Times, Dec. 6, 1939, 5;
John Stein- beck, Grapes of Wrath (New York: The Viking Press, 1939);
Carey McWilliams, Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939).
U.S. Congress, Senate, Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, Hearings, 74th Cong. (Washington, DC: Government Print- ing Office, 1940), 61 (hereafter cited as La Follette).
3
Julie Guthman; Guthman, Agrarian Dreams: The Paradox of Organic Farming California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).
Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryant to FDR (New York: Vintage Books, 1955), chapter 1.
4
McWilliams, Factories; Walter Goldschmidt, As You Sow (New York: Glencoe, 1947);
Paul Gates, Land and Law in California: Essays on Land Policies (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1991);
Gates, "Public Land Disposal in California," Agricultural History 49 (1975): 158-78;
Ellen Liebman, California Farmland: A History of Large Agricultural Landholdings (Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld, 1983);
Donald J. Pisani, From Family Farm to Agri- business: The Irrigation Crusade in California and the West, 1850-1931 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984);
Lawrence Jelinek, Harvest Empire: A History of California Agri- culture (San Francisco: Boyd & Fraser Pub- lishing Company, 1982);
Ernesto Galarza, Farm Workers and Agri-business in California, 1947-1960 (South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977);
Cietus Daniels, Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870-1941 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981);
Linda Majka and Theo Majka, Farm Workers, Agribusiness, and the State (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982);
Devra Weber, Dark Sweat, White Gold: California Farm Workers, Cotton, and the New Deal (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1994);
Matt Garcia, A World of its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Mak- ing of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001);
Richard Steven Street, Beasts of the Field: A Narrative History of California Farm Workers, 1769-1913 (Stanford: Stanford Uni- versity Press, 2004).
Victoria Woeste, The Farmer's Benevolent Trust: Law and Agricultural Cooperation in Industrial America, 1865-1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Preás, 1998);
David Vaught, Cultivating California: Grow- ers, Specialty Crops, and Labor, 1875-1920 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999).
Richard Walker, The Conquest of Bread: 150 Years of Agribusiness in California (New York: The New Press, 2004).
Donald Worster, Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985);
Steven Stoll, The Fruits of Natural Advantage: Making the Industrial Coun- tryside in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998);
Douglas Cazaux Sackman, Orange Empire: California and the Fruits of Eden (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).
5
Stoll, The Fruits of Natural Advantage, 1-5.
Daniels, Bitter Harvest, 43;
Felice A. Bonadio, A. P. Giannini: Banker of America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 60, 42.
6
Christopher Henke, Cultivating Science, Harvesting Power: Science and Industrial Agriculture in California (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2008);
Susanne Freidberg, Fresh: A Perishable History (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009);
Walker, Conquest of Bread, 13;
John H. Davis and Kenneth Hinshaw, Farmer in a Business Suit (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1957).
7
John Whitehead, "Hawai'i: The First and Last Far West?" Western Historical Quar- terly 23, no. 2 (May 1992): 153-77;
Victoria Wyatt, "Alaska and Hawai'i" in The Oxford History of the American West, ed. Clyde Milner and Carol A. O'Connor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).
David Igler, "Diseased Goods: Global Exchanges in the Eastern Pacific Basin, 1770-1850, American Historical Review 109 (June 2004): 693-719
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Associa- tion (HSAP), Sugar in Hawaii (Honolulu: HSAP, 1949), 35-40, 68-69;
8
John Vandercook, King Cane: The Story of Sugar in Hawaii (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1939), 53-63;
HSAP, Sugar in Hawaii, 35;
"Hawaiian Trade in Hands of Few," Wall Street Journal, Nov. 22 1932;
"New Sugar Refinery," San Fran- cisco Chronicle, Feb. 6, 1910;
California and Hawaiian Sugar Refining Co.," San Francisco Chronicle, July 18, 1910;
Walker's Manual of California Securities and Direc- tory of Directors, 1920 (San Francisco: H. D. Walker, 1920), 373,
Cooke, Castle, Baldwin, Alexander, Atherton, Waterhouse, Dillingham, and Lowrey in Walker Manual 1911, 238-56;
Walker Manual 1920, 370-88;
Walker Manual 1930, 836-57;
Walker Manual 1940, 1009-33.
9
Vandercook, King Cane, 53-63;
Ray S. Baker, "Wonderful Hawaii," American Magazine (Nov. 1911), 30;
Vandercook, King Cane, 129-30;
L.A. Henke, "Cane Varieties in Hawaii," Facts about Sugar 15 (July-Dec. 1922), 320.
10
George Cooper and Gavan Daws, Land and Power in Hawaii: The Democratic Years (Honolulu: Benchmark Books, 1985) 3;
Walker Manual, 1911, 351, 367, 372-73;
Walker Manual 1920, 490, 507;
Walker Manual 1925, 736, 738, 753, 832;
"Wells Fargo Bank Control Has Changed," San Francisco Chronicle, Dec. 7, 1921.
Castle & Cooke Corporation in Walker Manual 1960, 684-85;
Walker Manual 1965, 777-78;
11
Woeste, The Farmer's Benevolent Trust. Walker, Conquest of Bread, 205-11;
Stoll, Natural Advantage, 77.
Walker, Conquest of Bread, 205, 212.
Charles Postel, The Populist Vision (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007);
R. Douglas Hurt, Problems of Plenty: The American Farmer in the Twentieth Cen- tury (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2002), chapter 4;
Deborah Fitzgerald, Every Farm a Factory: The Industrial Ideal in American Agriculture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 110-14.
12
Hurt, Problems of Plenty, 52;
"Cooperation at a Profit," Fortune 14 (July 1936), 47-48;
Charles C. Teague, Fifty Years a Rancher: The Recollections of Half a Century Devoted to the Citrus and Walnut Industries of Cali- fornia (Los Angeles: n.p., 1944), 93-95, 431;
Walker Manual 1925, 559;
Walker Manual 1930, 754-55;
Walker Manual 1935, 910-11.
13
Woeste, The Farmer's Benevolent Trust, 81-82;
Walker Manual 1920, 632;
Walker Manual 1925, 431, 599, 559, 768.
Directorate of Chamber of Commerce and Affiliated Companies," La Follette, 18054-55;
Walker Manual 1915, 470-71 (A. P. and O. T. Johnson);
Walker Manual 1920, 525 (P. J. Dreher);
Walker Manual 1925, 411, 431, 826 (Teague), 765 (Chas. Eygabroad), 773 (W. M. Griswold), 794 (H. A. Lynn), 797 (O. W. Maulsby), 798 (H. B. McClure), 823 (W. E. Sprott).
14
Johnston to P. L. Cuccia, July 8, 1914, Box 6, Folder 117;
Johnston to Ruperto Martinez, Nov. 3, 1914, Box 7, Folder 139;
H. T. Jones to Johnston, July 29, 1914, Box 10, Folder 190;
John- ston to E. H. Morton, Dec. 29, 1921, Box 8, Folder 162;
Johnston to Morton, Dec. 1, 1922, Box 10, Folder 200;
Shipping Log 1916, Folder 263, Box 15;
Shipping Log 1925, Folder 457, Box 38;
Dennis, Kimball, & Pope Merchants, Folders 76-80, Box 5;
Sgobel & Day Merchants, Folders 127-29, Box 7;
Hancock Brothers Fruit Merchants, Folders 99-100, Box 5;
Monthly Time Book 1929-1940, Folder 383, Box 23;
15
David Igler, Industrial Cowboys: Miller & Lux and the Transformation of the Far West, 1850-1920 (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 2001);
16
Ruthe Teiser, "The Di Giorgios: From Fruit Merchants to Corporate Innovators," oral history transcript, 1983, 4-11, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley;
"30 Fruit Companies Merged," Washington Post, June 13, 1921;
"Business News," Los Angeles Times, Apr. 26, 1924;
Walker Manual 1925, 415.
17
"Di Giorgio Fruit Corporation Unharmed," Los Angeles Times, Sept. 8, 1935;
Walker Manual 1930, 475;
Walker Manual 1935, 557-62.
"Serious Break Among Growers," Los Angeles Times, Sept. 23, 1927;
Jelinek, Harvest Empire, 64;
Walker Manual 1940, 511-13;
Walker Manual 1945, 424-26;
Walker Manual 1950, 533-35;
"I Work; You Work; the Land Works," Los Angeles Times, Aug. 15, 1937;
"Joseph Di Giorgio," Fortune (Aug. 1946), 97;
"Fruit King," Time, Mar. 11, 1946.
18
Walker Manual 1910, 68;
Walker Manual 1935, 485-88;
Walker Manual 1940, 458-61;
"CalPak: The Adventures of Del Monte Brand," Fortune (Nov. 1938): 76-83;
Walker, Conquest of Bread, 220-22, 245;
Cooper, Power, 210;
Walker Manual 1945, 375-78.
20
Richard J. Orsi, Sunset Limited: The South- ern Pacific Railroad and the Development of the American West, 1850-1930 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 6-7, 73, 282-83;
Walker Manual 1940, 299-302;
Walker, Conquest of Bread, 99-100;
Hear- ings Report of Subcommittee of Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate (Wash- ington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1972),
Richard White, Railroaded: The Transcontinentais and the Making of Modern America (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011).
21
Sackman, Orange Empire, 66;
"Insects and Institutions: University Science and the Fruit Business of California," Agricultural History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1995), 222, 239;
Walker Manual 1935, 1067-72
Walker Manual 1920, 581, 613;
Walker Manual 1940, 511, 1092, 1108;
Walker Manual 1955, 555, 612;
Profile-Ag Report, 3069, 3115.
22
Walker Manual 1911, 127-28, 352;
Walker Manual 1915, 57-58;
Walker Manual 1920, 29, 533, 230, 489, 621;
Walker Manual 1940, 288, 511, 216, 485, 1015, 1017, 1024;
Profile-Ag Report, 3101, 3111.
23
Felice A. Bonadio, A. P. Giannini: Banker of America (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 1994), 9, 18, 116;
Walker Manual, 1910, 21-29;
"Walker Manual 1920, 78-79. 525 (P. J. Dreher), 535 (M.T. Freitas), 543 (Secondo Guasti), 566 (John Lagomarsino), 581 (Joseph Migliavacca);
Walker Manual 1935, 930-35;
930-35; Walker Manual 1940, 885-90, 585-86;
Profile-Ag Report, 3063;
Walker, Conquest of Bread, 260-65;
Marquis James and Bessie R. James, Biography of a Bank: The Story of Bank of America NT & SA, 1904-1953 (San Francisco: Bank of America, 1982), 89, 115, 255, 406;
Moira Johnston, Roller Coaster: The Bank of America and the Future of American Banking (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1990), 30, 60-65, 134.
Worster, Rivers of Empire, 234-35;
Liebman, California Farmland, 95-97;
J. Earl Coke, "Reminis- cences on People and Change in California Agriculture, 1900-1975: Oral History Tran- script (1976), 172, Bancroft Library, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley.
24
Walker, Conquest of Bread, 12-13.
George Henderson, California and the Fictions of Capital (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999)
25
Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, in The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Adrienne Koch and William Peden (New York: Random House, 1944), 280;
Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (Cam- bridge: Harvard University Press, 1950), 123-33;
Fredrick Jackson Turner, "the Significance of the Frontier in American History," in Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner, ed. John Mack Faragher (New York: Henry Holt, 1994), 32, 39. 43;
Fred Wilbur Powell, "Co-Operative Marketing of Cali- fornia Fresh Fruit," The Quarterly Journal of Economics 2, no. 2 (Feb. 1910): 393-418;
Ira B. Cross, "Co-operation in California," The American Economic Review 1, no. 3 (Sept. 1911): 535-44;
Victor W. Killick, "Most Valuable Farm Lands in the World," Techni- cal World Magazine 22, no. 1 (Sept. 1914), 68-70;
Paul Holden, "Agricultural Stan- dardization on the Pacific Coast," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 137 (May 1928), 107-8;
"Sugar in California," The Economist (Dec. 24, 1910), 1292-93;
"United States," The Economist (Jan. 28, 1911), 167;
"The Boom in Califor- nia," The Economist (Feb. 16, 1924), 287;
"The Growth of Los Angeles," The Economist (Feb. 28, 1925), 390.
27
"Seek Workers from Mexico: California Farmers Turn to Foreign Sources," Los Angeles Times, May 18, 1918;
"Mexico to Sup- ply Labor," New York Times, June 17, 1918;
"Items of Interest to Busy Farmers," San Francisco Chronicle, Aug. 4, 1918;
"Warns of Shortage of Labor on Farms," Boston Daily Globe, Aug. 23, 1918.
28
Street, Beast in the Fields, Cooper and Daws, Land and Power in Hawaii, Evelyn Glenn, Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002);
Dionicio Valdes, Organized Agriculture and the Labor Move- ment before the UFW: Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and California (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011).
Sackman, Orange Empire.
29
"Resume Hearing on Sugar Tariff," Wall Street Journal, Jan. 22, 1924;
"Will Start Campaign for Domestic Sugar," New York Times, May 14, 1928;
"Sugar in the Senate," Wall Street Journal, Jan. 11, 1930.
30
"The Position of Sugar," The Economist (Nov. 15, 1913), 1065;
"Cane Sugar Econom- ics," The Economist (May 19, 1928), 1039;
"Hawaiian Sugar Crops," Los Angeles Times, fan. 13, 1924;
"President's Message on Sugar Relief," New York Times, Feb. 9, 1934;
"AAA Considers Molasses Order to Aid Farmer," Washington Post, Nov. 28, 1934.
Jelinek, Harvest Empire, 75.
31
"Both Sides of Central Valley Water Project," Los Angeles Times, Dec. 15, 1933;
"Chamber Plea Sent President," Los Ange- les Times, Jan. 20, 1934;
"Directorate of Chamber of Commerce and Affiliated Companies," La Follette, 18054-55;
"State Gets Huge Fund," Los Angeles Times, Sept. 13, 1935;
Worster, Rivers of Empire, 240.
Paul S. Taylor, Essays on Land, Water, and Law in California (New York: Arno Press, 1979).
32
Jerold Auerbach, Labor and Liberty: The La Follette Committee & the New Deal (India- napolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966), 177.
"Eleven Seized in Farm Riot," Los Angeles Times, Sept. 9, 1933;
"Strike War Flares Up," Los Angeles Times, Oct. 9, 1933;
"4 Killed, 2 Dying in Coast Strikes," New York Times, Oct. 11, 1933;
"Needed: A Swift Kick," Los Angeles Times, Nov. 28, 1933;
"Reds Linked to Strife," Los Angeles Times, June 9, 1934.
Daniels, Bitter Harvest; Devra Weber, Dark Sweat, White Gold: California Farm Workers, Cotton, and the New Deal (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
33
Clarke A. Chambers, California Farm Organizations: A Historical Study of the Grange, the Farm Bureau and the Associated Farmers, 1929-1941 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1952), 39-52;
"Farmers Form Benefit Group," Los Angeles Times, Sept. 20, 1933;
"Cold Terror in California," Nation, July 24, 1935;
"Red Ouster Move Urged," Los Angeles Times, Apr. 26, 1934;
"Farmers to Combat Reds," Los Angeles Times, May 10, 1934;
"Communists Pick California as World Uprising Center," Wash- ington Post, June 29, 1934;
Frederick Jackson Turner, "The West and American Ideals," in Faragher, Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner, 152;
Farmers Form Benefit Group," Los Angeles Times, Sept. 20, 1933;
"Dirt Farm- ers Organize," Los Angeles Times, Oct. 15, 1:933;
"Farmers to Combat Reds," Los Angeles Times, May 10, 1934;
"Riverside Farm Group to Fight Red Agitators," Los Angeles Times, Aug. 4, 1934, 11;
"Farmers Join to Smash Strikes," Business Week (May 22, 1937), 37;
"Farmers Break Strike," Business Week (July 17, 1937), 37;
"Anti-Union Farmers Spread Out," Business Week (Dec. 4, 1937), 46;
La Follette, 24603.
34
Samuel P. Frisselle testimony, La Fol- lette, 17909-13;
"Directorate of Chamber of Commerce and Affiliated Companies," La Follette, 18054-55, 17917_27, 17941-43' "Industrial Farming," The Nation (Jan. 1940), 97;
Chambers, California Farm Orga- nizations, 9-30.
35
La Follette, 17644-52 ;
"Governor Mer- riam to Attend Di Giorgio Dinner," Los Angeles Times, Feb. 2, 1937;
"I Work; You Work; the Land Works," Los Angeles Times, Aug. 15, 1937
"A Community Aroused," Associated Farmers Publication, 1947
Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University; "Joseph Di Giorgio to Governor Earl Warren," Jan. 10, 1948;
"Joe Lewis of Farm Research To Warren," June 18, 1948,
Ernesto Galarza, Spiders in the House and Workers in the Fields (South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press, 1970).
36
Report of the Commission on Land Coloni- zation and Rural Credits, State of California (Nov. 29, 1916), 7-8, 90, University of Cali- fornia Digital Library, http://archive.org/ details/reportofcommissioocaliiala.
Daniels, Bitter Har- vest, chapters 1-3.
37
Linda Gordon, "Dorothea Lange: The Photographer as Agricultural Sociologist," Journal of American History (Dec. 2006): 698-727, quote 701;
Gordon, Dorothea Lange: A Life Beyond Limits (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009);
Jess Gil- bert, "Eastern Urban Liberals and Midwest- ern Agrarian Intellectuals: Two Portraits of Progressives in the New Deal Department of Agriculture," Agricultural History (Spring 2000): 162-80;
Anne Whiston Spirn, Dar- ing to Look: Dorothea Lange's Photographs and Reports from the Field (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008);
Richard Steven Street, "Lange's Antecedents: The Emer- gence of Social Documentary Photography of California's Farmworkers," Pacific Histori- cal Review 75, no. 3 (2006): 385-428;
Paul S. Taylor and Dorothea Lange, An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1939);
Paul Tay- lor, "The Excess Land Law: Execution of a Public Policy," Yale Law Journal (Feb. 1955): 477-514.
Taylor, Essays on Land, Water, and the Law in California (New York: Arno Press, 1979).
38
John Steinbeck, "Dubious Battle in California," Nation (Sept. 12, 1936), 302-4;
Steinbeck, "The Harvest Gypsies," San Francisco News, Oct. 5-12, 1936;
Steinbeck, Their Blood Is Strong (San Francisco: Simon J. Lubin Society of California, 1938);
Stein- beck, The Grapes of Wrath (New York: The Viking Press, 1939);
Susan Ferriss and Ricardo Sandoval, The Fight in the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farm Workers' Move- ment (New York: Houghton Mifflin Har- court, 1997), 127;
Bonadio, A. P. Giannini, 249.
39
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1906);
Robert Wagner (May 15, 16, 1935), Congressional Record, 74th Cong., 1st sess., 7565, 7649;
Daniels, Bitter Harvest, 259;
National Labor Relations Act (Feb. 21, 1935), Congressional Record, 74th Cong., 1st sess., 2368;
"Social Security," Wall Street Journal, Aug. 26, 1935;
"Andrews Suggests Changes," New York Times, Feb. 12, 1935;
"Votes to Separate FERA and AGE Fund," New York Times, Feb. 15, 1935;
Elbert Thomas (June 14, 1938), Congressional Record, 75th Cong., 3rd sess., 9176, 9161;
Bonadio, A. P. Giannini, 42;
"Excerpted Wage Bill Draft," Washington Post, June 13, 1938;
Hiram Johnson (June 14, 1938), Congressional Record, 75th Cong., 3rd sess., 9162-63;
McWilliams, Factories, 48, 266.
40
Auerbach, Labor and Liberty, 184, 190;
"La Follette Committee Finishes Work Here," San Francisco News, Jan. 30, 1940, EWP F3640:297;
Daniels, Bitter Harvest, 284;
"I Wonder Where We Go Now," Fortune (Apr. 1939), 91.
41
John H. Davis, "From Agriculture to Agri- business," Harvard Business Review 34 (Jan. 1956): 107-15;
John H. Davis and Ray Allan Goldberg, A Concept of Agribusiness (Boston: Harvard University, 1957);
John H. Davis and Kenneth Hinshaw, Farmer in a Business Suit (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1957);
Alan Fusonie, "John H. Davis: Architect of the Agribusiness Concept Revisited," Agri- cultural History (Spring 1995): 326-48.
42
Walker Manual 3965, 777-78, 811-12;
Walker Manual 1967, 941;
Walker Manual 1980, 402-4;
Profile-Ag Report, 3063, 3073, 3075, 3077, 3101, 3092, 3109, 3088-89, 3082;
Peter Pringle, Food, Inc.: Mendel to Monsanto—The Promises and Perils of the Biotech Harvest (New York: Simon & Schus- ter, 2003);
Mary Hendrickson and William Heffernan, "Concentration of Agricultural Markets," Feb. 2002, Department of Rural Sociology, University of Missouri, http:// www.foodcircles.missouri.edu/CRJanu- ary02.pdf;
Wayne Broehl, Cargill: Going Global (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998).
43
Linda Lobao and Katherine Meyer, "The Great Agricultural Transition: Crisis, Change, and Social Consequences of Twen- tieth Century U.S. Farming," Annual Review of Sociology (2001): 103-24;
Peggy Barlett, American Dreams, Rural Realities: Family Farms in Crisis (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993);
Darrin Qual- man, The Farm Crisis and Corporate Power (Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alterna- tives, 2001);
Kathryn Marie Dudley, Debt and Dispossession: Farm Loss in America's Heartland (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).
44
Guthman, Agrarian Dreams; Christy Getz, Sandy Brown, and Aimee Shreck, "Class Politics and Agricultural Exceptionalism in California's Organic Agriculture Move- ment," Politics and Society (Dec. 2008): 478-507.
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