[Endnotes]

[Endnotes]
1
Statement of Harry Chandler, U.S. Con- gress, House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, Western Hemisphere Immigration: Hearings on H.R. 8523, H.R. 8530, and H.R. 8702, 71st Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1930), 70; http://babel.hathitrust. org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39oi5oi43i6932, acc. Jan. r6, 2011.
2
The Brawley News (hereafter cited as TBN), Dec. 14, 1934
Calexico Chronicle (hereafter cited as CC), Dec. 17, 1934
CC, Dec. 15, 1934.
3
TBN, Dec. 14, 1934.
4
James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven: Yale Uni- versity Press, 1985).
5
California Mexican Fact-Finding Committee, Mexicans in California, Report of Governor C. C. Young's Mexican Fact-Finding Committee (San Fran- cisco, CA: R and E Research Associates, 1970 [© 1930]), 63.
6
Mercedes Carreras de Velasco, Los Mexicanos que devolvio la crisis, 3929-1932 (Tlatelolco, MX: Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, 1974).
Fernando Saul Alanis Enciso, Que se queden alia: El gohiemo de Mexico y la repatriation de mexicanos en Estados Unidos (3934-1940) (Tijuana, MX: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, 2007).
7
Manuel Gamio, Mexi- can Immigration to the United States: A Study of Human Migration and Adjustment (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1969 [© I93°l)
The Mexican Immigrant: His Life-Story (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1969 [© 1931])
Paul S. Taylor, A Spanish-Mexican Peasant Com- munity: Arandas in Jalisco, Mexico (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1933)
James C. Gilbert, "A Field Study in Mexico of the Mexican Repatriation Movement" (master's thesis, University of Southern California, 1934)
Emory S. Bogardus, The Mexican in the United States (Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press, 1934).
8
Carey McWil- liams, Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California (Ham- den, CT: Archon Books, 1969 [© 1935]), 129
North from Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the United States (New York: Prae- ger, 1990 [© 1948]), 176
Abraham Hoff- man, Unwanted Mexican Americans in the Great Depression: Repatriation Pressures, 1929-1939 (Tucson: The University of Ari- zona Press, 1974)
Francisco E. Balderrama, In Defense of La Raza: The Los Angeles Mexi- can Consulate and the Mexican Community, 1929 to 1936 (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1982)
Dennis N. Valdes, Al Norte: Agricultural Workers in the Great Lakes Region, 1917-1970 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991), chaps. 3 and 4
George J. Sanchez, Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), chap. 10
Zaragosa Vargas, Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), chap. 5
Camille Guerin-Gonzales, Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration, Repatria- tion, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994)
David G. Gutierrez, Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immi- grants, and the Politics of Ethnicity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 72-74
Dionicio N. Valdes, Barrios Nortenos: St. Paul and Midwestern Mexican Communities in the Twentieth Century (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000), chap. 3
Matt Garcia, A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), chap. 3
Francisco E. Balder- rama and Raymond Rodriguez, Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s, rev. ed. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006), 236-63
Gabriela F. Arredondo, Mexican Chicago: Race, Identity, and Nation, 1916-39 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008), chap. 3
Kathleen Mapes, Sweet Tyranny: Migrant Labor, Industrial Agriculture, and Imperial Politics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 216-20.
9
Paul S. Taylor, Mexican Labor in the United States: Migration Statistics, vols. 2 and 3 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1933)
vol. 4 (1934)
California Mexican Fact-Finding Committee, Mexicans in Cali- fornia, chap. 1.
Josef Barton, "At the Edge of the Storm: Northern Mexico's Rural Peoples in a New Regime of Consumption, 1880-1940," in Land of Necessity: Consumer Culture in the United States-Mexico Borderlands, ed. Alexis McCrossen, 217-47 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009)
"Borderland Discontents: Mexican Migration in Regional Contexts, 1880-1930," in Repositioning North American Migration History: New Directions in Modern Continental Migration, Citizenship, and Community, ed. Marc S. Rodriguez, 141- 205 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2004).
10
Donna R. Gabaccia, "Is Everywhere Nowhere?: Nomads, Nations, and the Immi- grant Paradigm of United States History," The Journal of American History 86, no. 3 (Dec. 1999): 1115-34.
11
Repatriation of Mexican Nationals, file 55957/456, Department of Labor and Naturalization Service, Record Group 85, National Archives, Washington, DC.
12
Andres Landa y Pina, El servicio de migracion en Mexico (Talleres Graficos de la Nacion, MX: Secretaria de Gobernacion, 1930)
Arthur F. Corwin, "Mexican Policy and Ambivalence toward Labor Emigration to the United States," in Immigrants and Immigrants: Perspectives on Mexican Labor Migration to the United States, ed. Arthur F. Corwin, 179-94 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978).
13
John J. Dwyer, The Agrarian Dispute: The Expropriation of American-Owned Rural Land in Postrevolutionary Mexico (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008)
Casey Walsh, Building the Borderlands: A Transnational History of Irrigated Cotton along the Mexican- Texas Border (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2008).
14
Paul S. Taylor, Mexican Labor in the United States: Imperial Valley (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1970 [© 1930]).
Imperial Valley's defense of undocu- mented migrants, see file 0766-0775, 0782- 0786, 0793-0796, 0828-0837, 0857-0861, roll 15, Records Group 85, Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Series A, Subject Correspondence Files pt. 2: Mexican Immigration 1906-1930, National Archives and Records Administra- tion (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993)
Louis Bloch, "Report on the Mexican Labor Situation in the Imperial Valley," 22nd Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the State of California, 1925-1926 (Sacramento: California Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1926): 116-23
Mark Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow: Mexi- can Immigrant Labor in the United States, 1900-1940 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976), 60-67.
Benny J. Andres, "Power and Control in the Imperial Valley: Nature, Agribusiness, Labor and Race Relations, 1900-1940" (PhD diss., University of New Mexico, 2003).
15
Dorothy P. Kerig, "Yankee Enclave: The Colorado River Land Company and Mexican Agrarian Reform in Baja California, 1902-1944" (PhD diss., University of California, Irvine, 1988)
Pablo Herrera Carrillo, Reconquista y colonization del valle de Mexicali y otros escritos paralelos (Mexicali, MX: Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, 2002), chaps 17-24
Eugene K. Chamberlin, "Mex- ican Colonization versus American Inter- ests in Lower California," Pacific Historical Review 20, no. 1 (Feb. 1951): 43-55
Robert H. Duncan, "The Chinese and the Economic Development of Northern Baja California, 1889-1929," Hispanic American Historical Review 74, no. 4 (Nov. 1994): 615-47.
16
David Acosta Montoya, "Precursores del agrarismo" y "El Asalto a Las Tierras" en el Estado de Baja California (Mexicali, MX: Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, 1985), 26-86.
17
TBN, June 12, 1920.
18
Oscar Sanchez Ramirez, Cronica agricola del valle de Mexicali (Mexicali, MX: Univer- sidad Autonoma de Baja California, 1990), 82-84,101-4.
19
Duncan, "The Chinese," 633
TBN, Nov. 7,1925.
20
TBN, Sept. 12 and 15, 1924
Sanchez Ramirez, Cronica agricola, 72-82
Carrillo, Reconquista y colonization, 162-64
Abe- lardo L. Rodriguez, Memoria administrativa del gobierno del Distrito Norte de la Baja California, 1924-1927 (Mexicali, MX: Uni- versidad Autonoma de Baja California, 1993 [© 1928]), chap. 4.
21
Statement of Harry Chandler, 72.
22
Taylor, Mexican Labor in the United States: The Imperial Valley, 17-18.
23
Taylor, Mexican Labor in the United States: Migration Statistics, 4:36-49.
24
Statement of Harry Chandler, 62, 64.
25
Carrillo, Reconquista y colonizacion, 179-80.
26
TBN, Jan. 14,1930.
27
Balderrama and Rodriguez, Decade of Betrayal, 199-200.
28
"Report Rendered to the Honorable Fed- eral Board of Investigation by the Comite Mexicano de Bienestar Social (Mexican Social Welfare Committee) of Brawley, Cali- fornia, February 1934," carton 14, folder 38, n.p., Inventory of the Paul S. Taylor Papers, MSS 84/38C, The Bancroft Library Archi- val Collections, University of California, Berkeley.
29
Spanish and English translation of an excerpt from "Report Submitted by Gen- eral Juan Andrew Almaz[a]n, Secretary of Communications and Public Works, to the President of the Republic, with Reference to His Journey through the Northwestern Part of the Country, Mexico, July, 1930," 29-37, in the Spanish report, file Mexico, folder 1, Imperial Irrigation District Archive, Imperial, CA.
30
TBN, Sept. 30 and Oct. 2,1930.
31
Natalia Molina, "Constructing Mexicans as Deportable Immigrants: Race, Disease, and the Meaning of "Public Charge," Identi- ties: Global Studies in Culture and Power 17 (2010): 641-66
Fit to Be Citizens?: Pub- lic Health and Race in Los Angeles, 2879-1939 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 120-30,136-41.
32
Jaime R. Aguila, "Protecting 'Mexico de Afuera': Mexican Emigration Policy, 1876- 1928" (PhD diss., Arizona State University, 2000) in Dissertations & Theses: Full Text (Publication No. AAT 9990715), 65-82, ret. May 6, 2011.
33
TBN, Apr. 20, 1925.
34
Statement of C. B. Moore, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Immigration, Restric- tion of Western Hemisphere Immigration: Hearings on S. 1437, 70th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1928), 61; http://babel.hathitrust. 0rg/cgi/pt?id=mdp.3g0i50i43i6940, acc. Jan. 16, 2011.
35
TBN, Apr. 10, 1926.
36
Agnes K. Hanna, "Social Services on the Mexican Border," National Conference of Social Work (1935): 692-702
Norman D. Humphrey, "Mexican Repatriation from Michigan Public Assistance in Historical Perspective," The Social Service Review 15, no. 3 (Sept. 1941): 497-513; www.jstor.org/ stable/30013706, acc. July 5, 2oro.
37
Andres, "Power and Control," 223-28.
38
TBN, May 2,1934.
39
Andres, "Power and Control," 230-35.
40
Cletus E. Dan- iel, Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870-1941 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981), chap. 7
Gilbert G. Gonzalez, "Company Unions, the Mexican Consulate, and the Imperial Valley Agri- cultural Strikes, 1928-1934," The Western Historical Quarterly 27, no. 1 (Spring 1996), 60-73
Mexican Consuls and Labor Organizing: Imperial Politics in the American Southwest (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999), 174-96
Andres, "Power and Con- trol," 288-315.
41
TBN, June 6, 1934.
42
Ibid., Nov. 15 and 16, Dec. 27,1934.
43
CC, Apr. 16 and 22, May 8,1935.
44
Dwyer, The Agrarian Dispute, 46, 59
CC, Sept. 19, 1934
CC, Sept. 21, 1934.
45
Dwyer, The Agrarian Dispute, 181.
Christopher R. Boyer, Becoming Campesinos: Politics, Identity, and Agrarian Struggle in Postrevolutionary Michoacan, 1920-1935 (Stanford, CA: Stanford Univer- sity Press, 2003), chap. 6.
46
CC, Dec. 15, 1934.
47
Ibid., Dec. 17, 1934, Jan. n, 1935.
48
Ibid., Mar. 4 and 27, July 23, Nov. 21, Dec. 6 and 17,1935
May 6,1936.
49
CC, Mar. 6,1935
Kerig, "Yankee Enclave," 314-81.
50
CC, Mar. 5 and May 28,1935
July 9, 1936.
51
Ibid., Apr. 6, 12, 13, and 15, 1935.
52
CC, Nov. 12, 23, and 25, 1935
Dwyer, The Agrarian Dispute, 48
CC, Jan. 23 and 27 and May 14, 1936.
53
CC, Nov. 21, 1935
Feb. 11 and Apr. 17, 1936.
54
Ibid., Nov. 21, 1935
July 20 and Sept. 17, 1937.
55
CC, Sept. 27,1934
Marco Antonio Samaniego Lopez, "For- macion y consolidacion de las organizacio- nes obreras en Baja California, 1920-1930," Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 14, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 329-62; www.jstor. org/Mon., July 24 23:41:58 2006, acc. July 24, 2006.
56
CC, Apr. 2, 1936.
57
Ibid., Jan. 5,1937.
58
Dwyer, The Agrarian Dispute, 61.
59
CC, July 15, 1936.
60
Ibid., June 8 and Aug. 5, 1936.
61
Ibid., Sept. 30 and Oct. 8,1936.
62
Dwyer, The Agrarian Dispute, 44-45.
63
Acosta Montoya, "Precursores del agrarismo," 73-77, 87-109, 129-37
San- chez Ramirez, Cronica agricola, 104-6.
Boyer, Becoming Campesinos, chap. 4.
64
CC, Jan. 28, Feb. 2, and Mar. 4,1937
Sanchez Ramirez, Cronica agricola, 111-14.
65
CC, Mar. 13 and 16, 1937
Kerig, "Yankee Enclave," 358.
66
CC, Mar. 13 and 30, Apr. 1, 7, and 17, 1937.
67
Ibid., Apr. 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, May 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 1937
CC, May n and 12, 1937.
68
CC, Apr. 16, June 28 and 29,1937
Kerig, "Yankee Enclave," 380
Maria Eugenia Anguiano Tellez, Agricultura y migracion en el Valle de Mexicali (Tijuana, MX: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, 1995), 100
69
CC, Mar. 23 and June 21 (quote) and 22, 1937.
70
CC, Oct. 7 (quote) and 28,1937
TBN, Feb. 7,1938
CC, Apr. 6 and Aug. 3,1938
Dec. 14,1939
71
CC, July 5, 6, 7, and 10,1939
TBN, July 5, 10, and 13, 1939
Dwyer, The Agrarian Dispute, 258-59.
72
CC, July 18, Aug. 24, Oct. 23, 24, and 26, 1939
Chamberlin, "Mexican Colonization," 55
Duncan, "The Chinese," 620.
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