Sir George Simpson, Narrative of a Voyage to California Ports in 1841-1842 (San Fran- cisco: Thomas C. Russell, 1930), 123.
Victoria Reid to Abel Stearns, May 1851, in Susanna Bryant Dakin, A Scotch Paisano in Old Los Angeles: Hugo Reid's Life in Califor- nia, 1832-1852 Derived from His Correspon- dence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), 194.
Ann Laura Stoler, Carnal Knowl- edge and Imperial Power: Race and the Inti- mate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002).
Sylvia Van Kirk, Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670-1870 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980)
Jacqueline Peterson and Jennifer S. H. Brown, eds., The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Metis in North America (Win- nipeg: The University of Manitoba Press, 1985)
Asuncion Lavrin, ed., Sexuality el Marriage in Colonial Latin America (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989)
Martha Hodes, ed., Sex, Love, Race: Crossing Bound- aries in North American History (New York: New York University Press, 1999)
Albert L. Hurtado, Intimate Frontiers: Sex, Gender, and Culture in Old California (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999)
Susan Sleeper-Smith, Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes (Amherst: Uni- versity of Massachusetts Press, 2001)
Maria Raquel Casas, Married to a Daughter of the Land: Spanish-Mexican Women and Interethnic Marriage in California, 1820-1880 (Reno/Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press, 2007).
Erika Perez, Colonial Intimacies: Interethnic Kinship, Sexuality, and Marriage in Southern California, 1769-1885 (PhD diss., University of California Los Angeles, 2010)
"The Paradox of Kinship: Native-Catholic Com- munities in Alta California, 1769-1840S," in On the Borders of Love and Power, ed. Crista DeLuzio and David W. Adams (forthcom- ing, the University of California Press).
Quincy D. Newell, Constructing Lives at Mission San Francisco: Native Californians and Hispanic Colonists, 1776-1821 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009), chap. 5.
Jose Antonio Esquibel, "Sacramental Records and the Preservation of New Mexico Family Genealogies from the Colonial Era to the Present," in Seeds of Struggle/Harvest of Faith: The Papers of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe Catholic Cuatro Centennial Conference on the History of the Catholic Church in New Mexico, ed. Thomas J. Steele, S. J., Paul Rhetts, and Barbe Await, 29 (Albuquerque: LPD Press, 1998).
Edward H. Spicer, Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1333- 1960 (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1962), 292-93, 304
Virginia M. Bouvier, Women and the Conquest of Califor- nia, 1542-1840: Codes of Silence (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 2001), 33-34.
Mission San Buenaventura Baptisms, US/Can Reel #913170, Latter-Day Saints Los Angeles Family History Library, Los Angeles, CA (hereafter cited as LAFHL).
Sidney W. Mintz and Eric R. Wolf, "An Analysis of Ritual Co-Parenthood (Compadrazgo)," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 6, no. 4 (Winter 1950): 353.
Mintz and Wolf note that "Spaniards who were members of exploring parties frequently served as sponsors for Indian converts."
Statistics for the years 1771-75 derived from Mission San Gabriel Arcangel Baptisms 1771-1819, US/Can Film #2643, LAFHL. Statistics for the sample years of 1800-1 and 1810-11 were derived from Baptism and Godparent Databases for Mission San Gabriel, The Huntington Library, Early California Population Project Database, 2006 (hereaf- ter cited as ECPP).
Hugo G. Nutini and Betty Bell, Ritual Kinship: The Structure and Historical Devel- opment of the Compadrazgo System in Rural Tlaxcala, vol. I (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980), 343, 346.
Mission San Juan Capistrano Baptism Database, nos. 04568-04572 (5/15-8/21/1842), 04580 (9/12/1842), 04585 (h/i5/i842). 04591-04592 (5/10/1843), ECPP.
Mission San Gabriel Baptism Database, no. 01300 (Feb. 10, 1786), ECPP
Mission San Juan Capistrano Bap- tism Database, nos. 00907 (Dec. 2, 1788), 01069 (Apr. 11, 1791)
Mission San Diego Baptism Database, no. 01296 (Oct. 20, 1787), ECPP.
Antonio Coronel, Tales of Mexican Califor- nia, ed. Doyce B. Nunis Jr. and trans. Diane de Avalle-Arce (Santa Barbara, CA: Bellero- phon Books, 1994), 79.
Mintz and Wolf, "An Analysis of Ritual Co- Parenthood (Compadrazgo)," 341-68.
Stephen Gude- man, "Spiritual Relationships and Selecting a Godparent," Man 10, no. 2 (June 1975): 221-37.
Gudeman (p. 234)
Mintz and Wolf, "An Analysis of Ritual Co-Parenthood (Compadrazgo)," 342, 347- 48, 363-64.
George M. Foster, "Cofradia and Compadrazgo in Spain and Spanish Amer- ica," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 9, no. 1 (Spring 1953): 9.
James A. Sandos, Converting California: Indians and Franciscans in the Missions (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), 42.
Nutini and Bell, Ritual Kinship, 336-37.
Esquibel, "Sac- ramental Records," 29, 31.
Sandos, Convert- ing California, 51-52.
Steven W. Hackel, Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769-1850 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), chap. 3
David Igler, "Diseased Goods: Global Exchanges in the Eastern Pacific Basin, 1770-1850," American Historical Review 109, no. 3 (June 2004): 693-719.
Junipero Serra, Writings of Junipero Serra, vol. 2, ed. Antonine Tibesar, Publications of the Academy of American Franciscan History (Washington, DC: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1956), 71-73, 307.
Rose Marie Beebe and Robert M. Sen- kewicz, trans., Testimonios: Early Califor- nia through the Eyes of Women, 1815-1848 (Berkeley: Heyday Books and The Bancroft Library, 2006), 131-32 (testimonio of Juana Machado).
Fernando Librado, Breath of the Sun: Life in Early California as Told by a Chumash Indian, Fernando Librado to John P. Har- rington, ed. Travis Hudson (Banning and Ventura, CA: Malki Museum Press and Ven- tura County Historical Society, 1979), 48.
Junipero Serra, The Writings of Junipero Serra, 4 vols., ed. Anto- nine Tibesar, O.F.M., Publications of the Academy of American Franciscan History (Washington, DC: Academy of American Franciscan History, 1955/6)
Fermin Fran- cisco de Lasuen, The Writings of Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, 2 vols., ed. and trans. Finbar Kinneally (Washington, DC: The Academy of American Franciscan History, 1965)
Geronimo Boscana, Chinigchinich: A Revised and Annotated Version of Alfred Rob- inson's Translation of Father Geronimo Bos- cana's Historical Account of the Belief, Usages, Customs and Extravagancies of the Indians of this Mission of San Juan Capistrano Called the Acagchemem Tribe, annotations John P. Harrington (Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press, 1978)
Juan Cortes, The Doctrina and Confesionario of Juan Cortes, ed. and trans. Harry Kelsey (Altadena, CA: Howling Coy- ote Press, 1979)
Maynard Geiger, O.F.M., ed. and trans., Fray Antonio Ripoll's Descrip- tion of the Chumash Revolt at Santa Barbara in 1824 (Santa Barbara, CA: Mission Santa Barbara, 1980)
Jose Senan, "The Ventureno Confesionario of Jose Senan, O.F.M.," Uni- versity of California Publications in Linguistics 47, ed. Madison S. Beeler (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967)
Pablo Tac, Indian Life and Customs at Mission San Luis Rey, eds. and trans. Minna and Gordon Hewes (San Luis Rey, CA: Old Mission, 1958)
Librado, Breath of the Sun and The Eye of the Flute.
Lowell John Bean and Charles R. Smith, "Serrano," in Handbook of North American Indians, ed. Robert F. Heizer and William C. Sturtevant, 3:572 (Washington, DC: Smith- sonian Institution).
Librado, Breath of the Sun, 28.
Lisa Sousa, "Tying the Knot: Nahua Nuptials in Colonial Central Mexico," in Religion in New Spain, ed. Susan Schroeder and Stafford Poole, 43 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007).
Constance Goddard DuBois, "The Religion of the Luiseno Indians of Southern California," University Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 8, no. 3 (1908): 77-84, 93-6
Alfred L. Kroe- ber, Handbook of the Indians of California (Berkeley: California Book Co., Ltd., 1953), 856, 858, and 862
William McCawley, The First Angelinos: The Gabrielino Indians of Los Angeles (Banning and Novato, CA: Malki Museum Press and Ballena Press, 1996), 151-53
Lucile Hooper, "The Cahuilla Indi- ans," University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 16, no. 6 (April 1920): 345-8
Ruby Modesto and Guy Mount, Not for Innocent Ears: Spiritual Traditions of a Desert Cahuilla Medicine Woman (Areata, CA: Sweetlight Books, 1980), 40.
Steven W. Hackel, "The Staff of Leader- ship: Indian Authority in the Missions of Alta California," The William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 2 (April 1997): 350, 364-74.
Nutini and Bell, Ritual Kinship, 352-53 and chap. 8
Stephen Gudeman, "The Compadrazgo as a Reflection of the Natural and Spiritual Per- son," Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1971 (1971): 56, 66
Gudeman, "Spiritual Relationships and Selecting a Godparent," 225
Ann Osborn, "Compadrazgo and Patronage: A Columbian Case," Man 3, no. 4 (Dec. 1968): 593-608
John M. Ingham, "The Asymmetrical Implications of Godpar- enthood in Hayacapan, Morelos," Man 5, no. 2 (June 1970): 283
Mintz and Wolf, "An Analysis of Ritual Co-Parenthood (Com- padrazgo)," 341-68.
Librado, The Eye of the Flute, 69.
Librado, The Eye of the Flute, 19,112
Thomas Blackburn, "Ceremonial Integration and Social Interaction in Aboriginal California," in Native Californians: A Theoretical Ret- rospective, ed. Lowell J. Bean and Thomas C. Blackburn, 229, 231-33, and 240-43 (Ramona, CA: Ballena Press, 1976).
Fermin Francisco de Lasuen to Marques de Branciforte, Apr. 25, 1797, in Lasuen, Writings, 2:18.
Spicer, Cycles of Conquest, 249
Hackel, "The Staff of Leadership," 350, 364-74.
Dakin, A Scotch Paisano, 77.
Ibid., 106, 107.
Dakin, A Scotch Paisano, 149, 153, 194.
Mission San Gabriel Baptisms, no. 08909, ECPP
Dakin, A Scotch Paisano, 12.
Jesse Ferguson and Maria Rendon in San Gabriel Mission Matrimonial Investigation Records [digitized], William McPherson Collec- tion, Special Collections, Libraries of The Claremont Colleges, http://ccdl.libraries. claremont.edu/collection.php?alias=mir, acc. May 31, 2010
Agustin Janssens, The Life and Adventures in California of Don Agustin Janssens, 1834-1856, William H. Ellison, ed., and Francis Price, ed. and trans. (San Marino, CA: The Huntington Library, 1953), 117-18.
Catholic Church, Mission San Luis Obispo, Extracts of Church Records, 1769-1917, US/Can Film Reel #944282, item 4, Thomas Workman Temple, II and Zoeth Skinner Eldredge, trans, and comp. (Salt Lake City: Genealogi- cal Society of Utah, ca. 1987), LAFHL
Los Angeles Plaza Church Baptisms Database, no. 965 (Feb. 12, 1840)
Maria Emidia Tomasa Prudhomme no. 1917 (Aug. 6, 1848), ECPP.
Jose Maria Alfredo Hill's baptism, see no. 1064 (July 9, 1934), ECPP.
Coronel, Tales of Mexican California, 67.
Michael Magliari, "Free Soil, Unfree Labor: Cave Johnson Couts and the Bind- ing of Indian Workers in California, 1850-1867," Pacific Historical Review 73, no. 3 (Aug. 2004): 358.
Tomas Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in Cali- fornia (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994), 149-50.
William Caswell Ferrell's judgment in Cave J. Couts vs. Fran- cisco, May 6, 1858, see CT 204, box 4, Cave J. Couts Papers, The Huntington Library, San Marino, California (hereafter cited as Couts Papers).
letters from John F. Couts to Cave J. Couts discussing slave purchases and transactions, CT 386, CT 388-391 (letter 1), box 8, Couts Papers.
CT 500, box 9, Couts Papers.
Robert F. Heizer and Alan J. Almquist, The Other Californians: Prejudice and Dis- crimination under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920 (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971), chap. 2
Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines, chap. 5
W. W. Robinson, The Indians of Los Angeles: Story of the Liquidation of a People, Early California Travels Series, vol. 7 (Los Ange- les: Glen Dawson, 1952), 2-3
Magliari, "Free Soil, Unfree Labor," 349-89.
A. S. Ensworth to Cave J. Couts, Jan. 10, i860, CT 199 (8), box 4, Couts Papers.
CT 204, box 4, Couts Papers.
CT 193 (40)
CT 193 (49)
CT 2615, box 4
CT 309, box 6, Couts Papers.
"Vicente & Comada, bind their son Juan to Da. Ysidora B. de Couts," Apr. 20,1855, CT 193 (4), Couts Papers.
"Indenture of Indian mother, Jacinta, binding her son to Isidora Couts" for 3 years, Aug. 13, 1866, CT 207, box 4, Couts Papers.
Michael J. Gonzalez, This Small City Will Be a Mexican Paradise: Exploring the Origins of Mexican Culture in Los Angeles, 1821-1846 (Albuquerque: Uni- versity of New Mexico Press, 2005), 133.
"Copies of Petition for Probate of Will of Juana Ballestero, 1859," File A5746- 34, Avila Family Papers Collection No. 1239, Seaver Center for Western History Research, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, California.
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