NOTES

NOTES
Parton, Horace Greeley et al., Eminent Women of the Age (Hartford, CT: S. M. Betts & Company, 1869), 379
Diana Tittle, The Severances: An American Odyssey, from Puritan Massachusetts to Ohio's Western Reserve, and Beyond (Cleveland: Western Reserve Historical Society, 2010)
Ella Giles Ruddy, ed., The Mother of Clubs: Caroline M. Seymour Severance: An Estimate and an Appreciation (Los Angeles: Baumgardt Pub- lishing Company, 1906), 21, 124
Caroline Severance to James S. Severance, n.d., box 36, folder 24, Severance Papers, Huntington Library, San Marino, California
Thelma Lee Hubbell and Gloria Ricci Lothrop, "The Fri- day Morning Club: A Los Angeles Legacy," in Women in the Life of Southern California: An Anthology Compiled from Southern Cali- fornia Quarterly, ed. Doyce B. Nunis Jr. (Los Angeles: Historical Society of Southern California, 1996), 304-05
Joan M. Jensen, "After Slavery: Caroline Severance in Los Angeles," Southern California Quarterly 48 (June 1966): 82
Debra Gold Hansen, Karen F. Gracy, and Sheri D. Irvin, "At the Plea- sure of the Board: Women Librarians and the Los Angeles Public Library, 1880-1905," Libraries e[ Culture 34, no. 4 (Fall 1999): 337
"California Women Profit by Ballot," New York Times, July n, 1920.
1
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morn- ing Club," 283.
2
Mark Sibley Severance, An Autobiography (privately printed, 1924)
David C. Dewsnap, The Severance Genealogy (Westminster, Maryland: Heritage Books, 2007), 100-1,194.
Eldridge Campbell and James Colton, trans., The Sur- gery of Theodoric: ca. A.D. 1267, 2 vols. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955-60).
Reverend John F. Severance, The Severans Genealogical History (Orange Park, FL: Quintin Publications, 2007), 37-38.
4
Mrs. Walter E. Burnham et al, History and Tradition of Shelburne, Massachusetts (Shel- burne, MA: History and Tradition of Shel- burne Committee, 1958), 194.
Stephen W. Williams, "A Medical History of the County of Franklin, in the Commonwealth of Mas- sachusetts," Massachusetts Medical Society, Medical Communications 7 (1842-48).
5
Diana Severance, obituary, n.p., n.d., SFR.
6
Egbert W Kelso, The History of Public Poor Relief in Massachusetts 1620-1920 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1922).
7
Elroy McKendree Avery, A History of Cleveland and Its Environs: The Heart of New Connecticut, vol. 2 (Chicago & New York: Lewis Publishing, 1918), 321-22
D. H. Beckwith, "Early Medical Work of Cleve- land," Annals of the Early Settlers Association of Cuyahoga County 5, no. 6 (1909).
"Ser- vices Held in Memory of the Late Catherine Sears," newspaper article, n.p., n.d., SFR.
Article, The (Cleveland) Herald, n.d., SFR.
Gertrude Van Rensselaer Wickham, The Pioneer Families of Cleveland 1796-1840, vol. 2 (Cleveland: Evangelical Publishing House, 1914), 629.
Maurice Joblin, Cleveland, Past and Present: Its Representative Men (Cleve- land: Maurice Joblin, 1869), I49-
Julius P. Bolivar MacCabe, First Directory of Cleveland and Ohio City, for the Years 1837-38 (Cleve- land, OH: Sanford and Lott, 1837).
8
Dewsnap, The Severance Genealogy, 194.
Judith Raftery, "Caroline Marie [CQ] Sey- mour Severance: Activist, Organizer, and Reformer," in The Human Tradition in California, ed. Clark Davis and David Igler (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002), 102
James Skinner Sey- mour Vertical File, Seymour Public Library, Auburn, NY(hereafter cited as Seymour Vertical File).
"Caroline Maria Seymour Severance Biographical Sketch," The Woman Question, Connecticut History on the Web, http://www.connhistory.org (hereafter cited as CS biographical sketch).
Ruddy, The Mother of Clubs, 55.
10
Raftery, "Caroline Marie Seymour Sever- ance," 102.
"My Own Story," contained in the Papers of Caroline Maria Seymour Severance 1830-1980, box 5, folder 19, Huntington Library, San Marino, California (hereafter cited as Severance Papers, CSS).
11
Joan M. Jensen, "Caroline Maria Seymour Severance," in Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary, ed. Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, and Paul S. Boyer, vol. 2 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), 265.
12
Tittle, The Severances. Ruddy, Mother of Clubs, 59.
13
Elbert J. Benton, A Century of Progress: Being a History of the National City Bank of Cleveland from 1845 t° *945 (Cleveland, OH: National City Bank, 1945), 3.
Severance, "My Own Story."
Ruddy, Mother of Clubs, 58, 108.
15
Ruddy, Mother of Clubs, 135.
Raftery, "Caroline Marie Sey- mour Severance"
Jensen, "After Slavery"
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morning Club"
Trustee Biographies—John L. Severance, Cleveland Orchestra Archives, Severance Hall, Cleveland, OH (hereaf- ter cited as Trustee Biographies).
George McKenna, The Puritan Origins of American Patriotism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), 4.
Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bel- lum South (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967).
16
"Caroline Severance," Dictionary of Uni- tarian and Universalist Biography, http:// www25-temp.uua.org (hereafter cited as CS dictionary entry).
Ruddy, Mother of Clubs, 21-22.
17
Jeanette E. Tuve, Old Stone Church: In the Heart of the City since 1820 (Virginia Beach, VA: The Donning Co., 1994), 17.
Jensen, "After Slavery," 75.
18
Parton et al., Emi- nent Women of the Age, 379-82.
19
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morn- ing Club," 287.
20
Parton et al., Eminent Women of the Age, 379-82.
Severance, An Autobiography, 5.
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morning Club," 287.
21
Severance, An Autobiography, 5.
Parton et al., Eminent Women of the Age, 379-82.
"More Women's Rights Conventions," National Park Service Women's Rights His- tory & Culture, http://www.nps.gov/wori/ historyculture.
22
Severance, An Autobiography, 6.
23
Ruddy, Mother of Clubs, 21.
Severance, "My Own Story."
24
Benton, A Century of Progress, 5.
John Long Severance to Mary Long Severance, July 22, 1846, SFR.
25
Benton, A Century of Progress, 3-6.
John E. Vacha, "My Money or Your Life: The Canal Bank Failure of 1854," Timeline (Mar.-Apr. 2001): 40.
Workers of Project No. 14066, Annals of Cleveland, 1818-igjy. A Digest and Index of the Newspaper Record of Events and Opinions in Two Hundred Vol- umes, vol. 34 (Cleveland, OH: WPA Admin- istration of Ohio, 1937), 102.
26
Harlan Hatcher, The Western Reserve: The Story of New Connecticut in Ohio (Indianapo- lis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1949), 129.
Vacha, "My Money or Your Life," 37.
27
Jensen, "After Slavery," 74.
Severance, An Autobiography, 10. Trustee Biographies. Raf- tery, "Caroline Marie Seymour Severance," 103.
28
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morn- ing Club," 283.
Raftery, "Caroline Marie Seymour Severance," 104
Ruddy, Mother of Clubs, 24.
29
Raftery, "Caroline Marie Seymour Sever- ance," 104.
"Mother of Women's Clubs Dead," New York Times, Nov. 11, 1914.
30
Sever- ance, An Autobiography.
31
James S. Severance to T.C. Severance, Feb. 17, 1873, box 47, folder 4, Severance Papers.
32
Mark Severance to T.C. Severance, Sept. 17, 1873, box 47, folder 4, Severance Papers.
33
James to T.C, Aug. 28, 1863, box 47, folder 4, Severance Papers.
T.C. to Caroline, Feb. 14, 1874, box 52, folder 16, Severance Papers
Clark Davis and David Igler, eds., The Human Tradition in California, 103.
34
Caroline to James, n.d., box 36, folder 24, Severance Papers.
35
James to T.C., Feb. 17,1873.
36
James to T.C., Jan. 28,1873, D0X 47 > folder 4, Severance Papers.
37
James to T.C., Feb. 17,1873.
38
James to T.C., Jan. 28, 1873.
39
Severance, An Autobiography, 71.
40
Mark Severance to Pierre Severance, 1872, box 50, folder 9, Severance Papers.
41
James to T.C., Feb. 17,1873.
42
T.C. to Caroline, Feb. 16,1874, Mar. 5, 1875, box 52, folder 16, Severance Papers.
Severance, An Autobiography, 26.
43
James to T.C. , Feb. 17, 1873
Caroline to T.C, July 28, 1875, box 37' folder 26
T.C. to Caroline, Mar. 10, 1875, box 52, folder 16, Severance Papers.
44
Severance, An Autobiography, 13-14
Raf- tery, "Caroline Marie Seymour Severance," 103. Caroline to T.C, July 28, 1875. Tittle> The Severances, 107. CS biographical sketch.
45
Caroline to T.C, July 28,1875.
46
T.C to Caroline, Feb. 14,16,17,1874.
47
Severance, An Autobiography, 82.
Mary Long Severance to Caroline, Oct. 17,1877
Mark to Pierre, 1872
Solon Severance to Caroline, Mar. 24,1875, box 51, folder 5, Sev- erance Papers.
Severance, "My Own Story."
48
Severance, "My Own Story."
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morning Club," 288.
49
Caroline Severance, "Reminiscences," box 5, folder 32, Severance Papers.
50
Sibley, An Autobiography, 85
Severance, "Reminiscences."
Solon to T.C., June 14, 1879, box 52, folder 10, Severance Papers.
"Mme. Caroline Severance," newspaper article, n.p., n.d, SFR.
51
Julia Severance Burrage to T.C., June 9, 1889, box 39, folder 4
James to T.C., Feb. 25,1878, box 47, folder 4, Severance Papers
Scrapbook, vol. 112, Pasadena [California] Historical Society (hereafter cited as Scrap- book).
Severance, "My Own Story."
Cecilia Rasmussen, "Actor's Wife a Star in Aiding Deaf Children and Their Families," Los Angeles Times, Nov. 14, 2004.
52
Judith Rosenberg Raftery, Land of Fair Promise: Politics and Reform in Los Angeles Schools, 1885-1941 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), 22
Gloria Ricci Lothrop, "Nurturing Society's Chil- dren," California History 65, no. 4 (Dec. 1986): 274-83.
53
Raftery, Land of Fair Promise, 22-27 and "Los Angeles Clubwomen and Progressive Reform," in California Progressivism Revis- ited, ed. William Deverell and Tom Sitton (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994), 149-51.
54
Jensen, "After Slavery," 79.
Lothrop, "Nur- turing Society's Children," 278.
55
Jensen, "After Slav- ery," 79-80.
56
Jensen, "After Slavery," 79-80.
Kevin Starr, Inventing the Dream: California through the Progressive Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 96.
Raftery, "Los Angeles Clubwomen," 148.
Lothrop, "Nur- turing Society's Children," 278.
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morning Club," 294.
Cecelia Rasmussen, "L.A.'s Leading, Now Forgotten, Suffragette," Los Angeles Times, June 7, 1998.
57
Caroline asserted in her unpublished autobiography, "My Own Story,"
58
Mark to T.C, May 31,1879, box 5°' folder 9, Severance Papers.
59
James to T.C, Feb. 27,1880, box 47, folder 5, Severance Papers.
Severance, "My Own Story."
60
"John Randall Munn Jr. '38," obituary, Princeton Alumni Weekly, Dec. 6, 2000.
61
D. E. Parker to Mary Long Severance, May 19, n.y., SFR. Solon to T.C, Sept. 28,1892, box 52, folder 10
Mary Long to T.C, Feb. 15, 1886, box 51, folder 6, Severance Papers.
62
"Death of T.C. Severance," obituary, n.p., n.d., SFR.
Severance, "My Own Story." T.C. to Caroline, Sept. 17, 20, and 22, 1890, box 52, folder 17, Severance Papers.
63
T.C. to Caroline, Sept. 17, 1890.
64
Jensen, Notable American Women, 267
"After Slavery," 80-81.
65
Hubbell and Lothrop, "The Friday Morn- ing Club," 290.
66
"Caroline M. Severance," Historical Soci- ety of Southern California, www.socalhis- tory.org/bios.
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