Lorraine J. Crouchett, Delilah Leontium Beasley: Oakland's Crusading Journalist (El Cerrito, CA: Downey Place Publish- ing House, Inc., 1990), 3
Richard Dillon, Humbugs and Heroes: A Gallery of California Pioneers (New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1970), 32-36
Elsa Barkley Brown, "Intro- duction, " in Delilah L. Beasley, The Negro Trail Blazers of California (New York: G. K. Hall, 1998), xvi.
Kevin K. Gaines, Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twenti- eth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).
Elsa Berkeley Brown, "Womanist Consciousness: Maggie Lena Walker and the Independent Order of St. Luke," Signs 14, no. 3 (Spring 1989): 610-33
Stephanie J. Shaw, What a Woman Ought to Be and To Do: Black Professional Women Workers Dur- ing the Jim Crow Era (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996)
Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, Gender Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996)
Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous Discontent: The Women's Move- ment in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993)-
Robert W. Rydell, All the World's a Fair. Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916 (Chicago: The Uni- versity of Chicago Press, 1984), 3.
Lynn M. Hudson, The Making of "Mammy Pleasant": A Black Entrepreneur in Nineteenth- Century San Francisco (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003).
Charles Wollenberg, All Deliberate Speed: Segregation and Exclusion in California Schools, 1855-1975 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977)
Irving G. Hendrick, "From Indifference to Impera- tive Duty: Educating Children in Early Cali- fornia," California History (Summer 2000): 226-49.
Program, First Meeting of the Afro- American Congress, San Francisco, July 30-Aug. 2,1895, California Historical Soci- ety, San Francisco, CHS: 13161.
A. W. Hunton, "The Club Movement in California," The Crisis (December 1912): 90.
W.E.B. Du Bois, "Colored California," The Crisis (August 1913): 192-95.
Lonnie Bunch, "The Greatest State for the Negro': Jefferson L. Edmonds, Black Propagandist of the California Dream" in Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in Cali- fornia, ed. Lawrence B. De Graaf, Kevin Mul- roy, and Quintard Taylor (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001), 129-48.
Albert Broussard, Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900-1954 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993), 40.
Josh Sides, I.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depres- sion to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 17.
Oakland Sunshine, Dec. 21,1907.
Broussard, Black San Francisco, 76.
Melvyn Stokes, D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation: A History of the Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time (London: Oxford University Press, 2008), 15-16.
Broussard, Black San Francisco, 77-78.
Oakland Independent, Dec. 14,1929.
Crouchett, Delilah Leontium Beasley, 46.
Rydell, All the World's a Fair, 209.
Wendy Kline, Building a Better Race: Gen- der, Sexuality, and Eugenics from the Turn of the Century to the Baby Boom (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 2001), 14.
Alexan- dra Minna Stern, Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005)
Matthew F. Bokovoy, The San Diego World's Fairs and Southwestern Memory, 1880-1940 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005).
Rydell, All the World's a Fair, 224.
Frank Morton Todd, The Story of the Expo- sition: Being the Official History of the Inter- national Celebration held at San Francisco in 1915 to Commemorate the Discovery of the Pacific Ocean and Construction of the Panama Canal, vol. 5 (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Knickerbocker Press), 38-40.
Robert W. Rydell, John E. Findling, and Kimberly Pelle, eds., Pair America: World's Fairs in the United States (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2000), 66.
Stern, Eugenic Nation, 55.
Kline, Building a Better Race, 14-
The Crisis, Apr. and June 1913.
Kline, Building a Better Race, 50.
S. L. Mash to Chas. Moore, Jan. 14, 1915, PPIE collection, box 23, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley (hereafter cited as PPIE).
Mash to Moore, Jan. 14,1915, PPIE.
R. J. Taussig to S. L. Mash, Feb. 6,1915, PPIE.
Mash to Moore, Feb 13,1915, PPIE.
Wilson & Waters, Mar. 8,1915, PPIE.
Wilson & Waters, Mar. 24,1915, PPIE.
Christopher Robert Reed, All the World Is Here!: The Black Presence in the White City (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), 17.
David Levering Lewis, "A Small Nation of People: W.E. B. Du Bois and Black Americans at the Turn of the Twen- tieth Century," in A Small Nation of People: W.E.B. Du Bois ei African American Portraits of Progress (New York: Amistad Press, 2003), 26.
her 1919 book The Negro Trail Blazers of California
Beasley, The Negro Trail Blazers of California, 303.
Gaines, Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century.
Oakland Sunshine, June 19, Dec. 11,1915.
Sunshine, Mar. 27,1915.
Sunshine, May 29,1915.
Reed, All the World Is Here!, 31.
Sunshine, May 29,1915.
Sunshine, June 5,1915.
Sunshine, Aug. 28, June 5,1915.
San Francisco Chronicle, June 11, 1915.
Sunshine, June 12,1915.
Chronicle, June 11,1915.
Sunshine, June 12,1915.
Michelle Mitchell, Righteous Propagation: African Americans and the Politics of Racial Destiny after Reconstruction (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 123.
Susan Bragg, "Marketing the Modern Negro: Race, Gender, and the Culture of Activism in the NAACP, 1909-1941," PhD diss., University of Washington, 2007
Daylanne K. English, Unnatural Selections: Eugenics in American Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (Cha- pel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004).
Branch Files, NAACP, Part I, Box G-21, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Adam Green, Selling the Race: Culture, Community, and Black Chicago, 1940-1955 (Chicago: Uni- versity of Chicago Press, 2007).
Sunshine, June 19,1915.
Sunshine, June 26,1915.
her discussion of the Civil War in Oakland Sunshine, June 26, 1915.
Sunshine, June 17,1915.
Sunshine, July 17,1915.
Broussard, Black San Francisco, 39.
Sunshine, Dec. 11,1915.
Sunshine, Sept. 18,1915.
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Julie des Jardins, Women and the Historical Enterprise in America: Gender, Race, and the Politics of Memory, 1880-1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003).
Roger Streitmatter, Raising Her Voice: African American Women Journalists Who Changed History (Lexington: the University Press of Kentucky, 1994).
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