Notes

Notes
1
Walt Whitman: Selected Poems Unabridged (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1991), 54-58.
3
Robert W. Cherny, Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, and Richard Griswold del Castillo, Competing Visions: A History of California (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005)
James J. Rawls and Wal- ton Bean, California: An Interpretive History (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008);
Richard B. Rice et al., The Elusive Eden: A New His- tory of California (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002);
Andrew Rolle and Arthur Verge, California: A History (Wheeling, 111: Harlan Davidson Inc, 2008).
4
Paul F. Griffin and Robert N. Young, California: The New Empire State: A Regional Geography (San Francisco: Fearon Publishers, 1957), v.
Nicho- las P. Hardeman, "Overland in Cargo Ships: The Inland Seaport of Stockton, California," Journal of the West 20, no. 3 (July 1981): 75-85.
5
N. P. Chapman, "Greater California and the Trade of the Orient," Overland Monthly 34, no. 201 (September 1899): 199.
6
William Lytle Schurz, "The Manila Galleon and California," The Southwestern Historical Quarterly 21, no. 2 (October 1917): 125-26.
7
Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Giraldez, "Globalization began in 1571," in Barry K. Gills and William R. Thompson, eds., Glo- balization and Global History (New York: Routledge, 2006).
8
Warren L. Cook, Flood Tide of Empire: Spain and the Pacific Northwest, 1543-1819 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973), 7-9;
J. H. Elliott, Empires of the Atlan- tic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492-1830 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), 353.
9
Adele Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade, 1784-1848 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1941), 3, 6.
10
Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade, 57-73;
Stephen Haycox, Alaska: An Ameri- can Colony (Seattle: University of Washing- ton Press, 2002), 108-14;
Kent G. Lightfoot, Indians, Missionaries, and Merchants: The Legacy of Colonial Encounters on the Califor- nia Frontier (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 2005), 114-53.
11
William J. Barger, "New Players at the Table: How Americans Came to Dominate Early Trade in the North Pacific," Southern California Quarterly 90, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 253;
Lightfoot, Indians, Missionaries, and Merchants, 246-47 n. 10.
12
David Igler, "Diseased Goods: Global Exchanges in the Eastern Pacific Basin, 1770-1850," American Historical Review 109 (June 2004): 693-719.
13
Lloyd CM. Hare, Salted Tories: The Story of the Whaling Fleets of San Francisco (Mystic, CT: The Marine Historical Association, Inc., i960), 2.
14
Ibid., 42-43.
15
D. Mackenzie Brown, ed., China Trade Days in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1947), 1-4.
16
Gerald D. Nash, "A Veritable Revolu- tion: The Global Economic Significance of the California Gold Rush," in James J. Rawls and Richard J. Orsi, eds., A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California, 276-92 (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 1998);
Ralph J. Roske, "The World Impact of the California Gold Rush, 1849-1857," Arizona and the West 5 (Summer 1963): 187-232.
17
A. C. W. Bethel, "The Golden Skein: Cali- fornia's Gold Rush Transportation Network," in Rawls and Orsi, eds., A Golden State, 254;
R. S. Kuykendall, The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1778-1854: Foundation and Transformation (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1968), 320-21.
18
Sucheng Chan, "A People of Exceptional Character: Ethnic Diversity, Nativism, and Racism in the California Gold Rush," in Kevin Starr and Richard J. Orsi, eds., Rooted in Barbarous Soil: People, Culture, and Com- munity in Gold Rush California, 54 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
Charles Bateson, Gold Fleet for California: Forty -Nin- ersfrom Australia and New Zealand (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1963), 38, 113.
19
Bethel, "The Golden Skein," 254.
20
Thomas N. Layton, The Voyage of the Frolic: New England Merchants and the Opium Trade (Stanford, CA: Stanford Uni- versity Press, 1997), 134-36.
James P. Delgado, Gold Rush Port: The Mari- time Archeology of San Francisco's Waterfront (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), 51, 53, 103, 108, 164.
21
Robert J. Schwendinger, Ocean of Bitter Dreams: Maritime Relations Between China and the United States, 1850-1915 (Tucson, Arizona: Westernlore Press, 1988), 74, 86, 88-90.
22
Robert J. Chandler and Stephen J. Potash, Gold, Silk, Pioneers el Mail: The Story of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company (San Fran- cisco: Friends of the San Francisco Mari- time Museum Library, 2007), 34.
E. Mowbray Tate, Transpacific Steam: The Story of Steam Navi- gation from the Pacific Coast of North America to the Far East and the Antipodes, 1867-1941 (New York: Cornwall Books, 1986), 25.
Robert J. Schwendinger, Interna- tional Port of Call: An Illustrated Maritime History of the Golden Gate (Woodland Hills, CA: Windsor Publications, Inc., 1984), 85.
Edwin T. Coman, Jr., and Helen M. Gibbs, Time, Tide & Timber: Over a Century of Pope & Talbot (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1949), 12, 14.
23
Eliot G. Mears, Mari- time Trade of Western United States (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1935), 15.
24
Malcolm J. Rohrbough, Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997),
J. S. Hol- liday, The World Rushed In: The California Gold Rush Experience (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981).
25
Chan, "A People of Exceptional Charac- ter," 51.
26
Kuykendall, The Hawaiian Kingdom, 319-20.
27
Allyn Campbell Loosley, Foreign Born Population of California, 1848-1920 (San Francisco: R and Ε Research Associates, I971)' 10.
28
"The Chinese in California, 1850-1925" online exhibition, Library of Congress (American Memory), http://memory.loc. gov/ammem/award99/cubhtml/cichome. html.
29
Thomas W. Chinn, ed., A History of the Chinese in California: A Syllabus (San Fran- cisco: Chinese Historical Society of Amer- ica, 1969), 38-40.
30
Doris Marion Wright, "The Making of Cosmopolitan California: An Analysis of Immigration, 1848-1870," California His- torical Society Quarterly 19, no. 4 (December 1940): 326-27.
Jay Monaghan, Chile, Peru, and the Califor- nia Gold Rush of 1849 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 250.
Gold Rush California; Delgado, Gold Rush Port, 97.
Chan, "A People of Exceptional Character," 44-85.
31
Jay Monaghan, Australians and the Gold Rush (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966), 177-78.
32
Kelly J. Sisson, "Bound for California: Chilean Contract Laborers and Patrones in the California Gold Rush, 1848-1852," Southern California Quarterly 90, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 269-70, 298;
Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, Him Mark Lai, eds., Chinese Ameri- can Voices: From the Gold Rush to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 25;
Chandler and Potash, Gold, Silk, Pioneers & Mail, 37.
33
San Diego Union-Tribune, October 19, 2007, http://www.signonsandiego.com/ news/mexico/2OO7IOI9-9999-InI9remit. html.
34
Jean Heffer, The United States and the Pacific: History of a Frontier (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002), 85-86;
Nathaniel Philbrick, Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 (New York: Viking, 2003), xvii-xviii.
35
Charles Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, vol. 5 (Philadel- phia: C. Sherman, 1844), 171-72, quoted in David B. Tyler, The Wilkes Expedition: The First United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1841) (Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1968), 338.
36
Robert Glass Cleland, "Asiatic Trade and American Occupation of the Pacific Coast," American Historical Association, Annual Report of the American Historical Associa- tion for the Year 1914, vol. 1 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution: 1916), 286;
Cherny et al., Competing Visions, 97,
37
Cleland, "Asiatic Trade," 288.
Norman A. Graebner's minor classic, Empire on the Pacific: A Study in American Continental Expansion (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1955)·
38
http://www.nps.gov/prsf/historycul- ture/spanish-american-war-a-splendid-little- war.htm.
Charles A. Fracchia, Fire and Gold: The San Francisco Story (Encinitas, CA: Heritage Media Corporation, 1998), 90-91.
39
Schwendinger, Ocean of Bitter Dreams, 130.
Thomas J. Osborne, "Trade or War: America's Annexation of Hawaii Reconsidered," Pacific Historical Review 50, no. 3 (August 1981): 295.
40
Kevin Starr, "California: A Dream," in Claudia K. Jurmain and James J. Rawls, eds., California: A Place, A People, A Dream, 21 (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1986).
41
Derek Hayes, Historical Atlas of California (Berke- ley: University of California Press, 2007), 28-33;
Dora Beale Polk, The Island of Califor- nia: A History of the Myth (Lincoln: Univer- sity of Nebraska Press, 1995), 115-19.
42
Robert Rydell, John E. Findling, and Kimberly D. Pelle, Fair America: World's Fairs in the United States (Washington, DC: Smithson- ian Institution Press, 2000), 67.
San Francisco, Berkeley, and Palo Alto at the Panama-Pacific Histori- cal Congress, July 19-23, 1915.
The Pacific Ocean in History: Papers and Addresses Presented at the Panama-Pacific His- torical Congress Held at San Francisco, Berke- ley, and Palo Alto, California, July 19-23, 1915,
H. Morse Stephens and Herbert E. Bolton and published by Macmillan Company in 1917.
43
San Francisco Bay, Feb. 19-Oct. 29, 1939,
Rydell et al., Fair America, 99.
44
Hubert Howe Bancroft, The Book of the Fair, chapter 28, "The California Midwinter International Exposition," 978, http:// columbus.gLiit.edu/bookfair/00144075. html.
45
Matt Warshaw, The Encyclopedia of Surfing (San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Inc., 2003), 522.
46
Ibid., 342.
Arthur Verge, "George Freeth: King of the Surfers and California's Forgotten Hero," California History 80 (Summer 2001), 83-105.
47
Kevin Starr, Coast of Dreams: California on the Edge, 1990-2003 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004), 3-9.
48
"Surfing secret catches a wave of noto- riety," Los Angeles Times, Dec. 31, 1994, http://www.latimes.com/features/la-os- 2tow,o, 132 6484. story.
49
"Daredevils of surfing's 'jet set' go to extremes," Los Angeles Times, Apr. 14, 2001, http://www.latimes.com/features/la-os- 4tow,o,7527366, full. story.
50
Kirse Granat May, "Under the Warm Cali- fornia Sun: Youth Culture in the Postwar Decades," in William Deverell and David Igler, eds., A Companion to California His- tory, 394-95 (Maiden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008);
Kirse Granat May, Golden State, Golden Youth: The California Image in Popu- lar Culture, 1955-1966 (Chapel Hill: Univer- sity of North Carolina Press, 2001), 66-68, 75-84.
51
Warshaw, The Encyclopedia of Surfing, 280.
52
John Garra ty, ed., American National Biography Online, http://www.anb.org/ articles/i6/i6-oo854.html?a=i&n=jeffers%2 C%2orobinson&d=io&ss=o&q=I.
53
William Everson, Archetype West: The Pacific Coast as a Literary Region (Berkeley: Oyez Books, 1976), 147-48. In 1977,
54
Timothy Gray, Gary Snyder and the Pacific Rim: Creating Counter-Cultural Community (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2006), 66-67, 100-1;
Albert Gelpi, The Poet in America, 1650 to the Present (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co., 1973), 792.
55
Everson Archeippe west,141
56
Terry H. Anderson, The Sixties (San Fran- cisco: Pearson Longman, 2007), 94-97;
Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, 1993), 214-19.
57
Economist.com (September 1, 2007), http://www.economist.com/daily/news/dis- playstory.cfm?story_id=9727775.
58
Anderson, The Sixties, 96-97.
59
Michael Murphy and Richard Price cofounded Esalen; http://www.esalen.org.
Linda Sargent Wood, "Contact, Encounter, and Exchange at Esalen: A Win- dow onto Late Twentieth Century American Spirituality," Pacific Historical Review yy, no. 3 (August 2008): 453-87.
60
Jeffrey J. Kripal, Esalen: America and the Religion of No Reli- gion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).
61
Esalen Center for Theory & Research, http://www.esalenctr.org/display/aboutpage. cfm?ID=2.
62
Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, http:// www.sfzc.org/tassajara/display.asp?catid=4 ,i9&pageid=i82.
Michael Downing, Shoes Outside the Door: Desire, Devotion, and Excess at San Francisco's Zen Center (Berkeley: Counterpoint, 2002), 5-63 passim.
63
Starr, Coast of Dreams, 21.
64
Soka University of America, http://www. soka.edu/page. cfm?p=4
65
Ibid., http://www.soka. edu/page.cfm?p=5.
Richard Hughes Seager, Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Soka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Bud- dhist Humanism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 171-76.
66
Pacific Rim Report, University of San Francisco, no. 49 (August 2007), 1, http:// www.pacificrim.usfca.edu/research/pacrim- report/pacrimreport49.html.
67
Ibid.
69
Annalee Saxenian, The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006), 10.
70
C/NetNews.com, Newsmaker: "When tech brains depart Silicon Valley," http:// news.cnet.com/When-tech-brains-depart- Silicon-Valley/2oo8-iO22_3-6no756.html.
Shenglin Chang, The Global Silicon Valley Home: Lives and Landscapes within Taiwanese American Trans-Pacific Culture (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006), 167-90.
71
University of San Francisco, Center for the Pacific Rim, 2007 Events Archive, httpY/www.pacificrim.usfca.edu/ events/2007. html
72
James Flanigan, Smile Southern California, You're the Center of the Universe (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009), 125.
73
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpre- tive History, 488.
74
Ibid., 489.
75
California Chamber of Com- merce, http://www.calchamber.com/ BusinessResources/InternationalResources/ Pages/China. aspx.
76
City of San Diego, Binational Proj- ects, http://www.sandiego.gov/economic- development/international/bination. shtml.
77
CalTrade Report (Mar. 3, 2008, and Oct. 4, 2004;
http://www.caltradereport. com/eWebPages/front-page-1213120209. html, and http://www.caltradereport.com/ eWebPages/front-page-io969o87i3.html
Los Angeles as the "Gateway for the Pacific Rim" is treated in Steven P. Erie, Globalizing L.A.: Trade, Infrastructure, and Regional Development (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004), 3-20.
78
NPS website, http://www.nps.edu/About- nps/Navigation/Heritage.html
79
Starr, Coast of Dreams, 300-1.
80
Peter Schrag, California: America's High Stakes Experiment (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 24.
81
Los Angeles Times, Nov. 12, 2008, http:// www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/ Ia-fg-rosaritoi2-2oo8novi2, 0,1079813. story ?page=2.
San Diego Union-Tribune, Mar. 22, 2008, http://www.signonsandiego.com/union- trib/2oo8o322/news_in22break.html.
82
http://www.sanfran- ciscochinatown.com/events/chinesenew- yearparade.html.
"A Vietnam War in O.C.," Los Angeles Times, Sept. 6, 2007, http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la- oe-schou6sepo6, 0,6498448. story?coll=la- opinion-center.
83
City ofNagoya, City of Los Angeles: An Account of 40 Years of the Bonds of Friendship, 1959-1999 (2000), 36.
U.S. office of Sister Cities International, 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue, Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004.
84
Los Angeles Times, Jan. 25, 1995.
85
Carey McWil- liams, California: The Great Exception (New York: Current Books, Inc., 1949).
86
David Igler, "Trading Places: The View of Colonial American History from the Pacific," Huntington Frontiers 3, no. 2 (Fall/ Winter 2007): 17-21;
Thomas J. Osborne, "Teaching the U.S. History Survey as if the Pacific Mattered (a Lot)," Perspectives on His- tory 46, no. 4 (April 2008): 19-21.
87
Magazine of History 18, no. 3 (April 2004),
88
Philip L. Fradkin, The Seven States of California: A Natural and Human History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), xv, xviii.
89
Albert L. Hurtado, John Sutter: A Life on the North American Frontier (Norman: Uni- versity of Oklahoma Press, 2006).
1
Jack London, The Cruise of the Snark (Min- eola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 2000), 7.
The Mac- millan Company, New York, 1919.
2
Ibid., 203, 264, 339.
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