Notes

Notes
1
Alexander Fried, "Bacon Is Ousted as Music Project Chief," Examiner, May 27, 1937.
2
Chronicle, May 27, 1937;
San Francisco News, May 27, 1937.
3
"The Dismissal of Ernst Bacon," Argonaut, June 18, 1937, 4.
Bacon's music column for the Argonaut appeared from Jan. 26, 1934 through Apr. 5, 1935.
5
Woodward to Albert Elkus, June 16, 1937 (Jonathan Elkus Papers, Archives Elkus 3, University of California, Berkeley, Music Library [hereafter cited as Elkus Papers, UCB], box 11.)
Cornelius Canon, "The Federal Music Project of the Works Progress Administration: Music in a Democracy" (PhD diss., University of Min- nesota, 1963), 44-46.
Martha H. Swain, Ellen S. Woodward: New Deal Advocate for Women (Jackson: Univer- sity Press of Mississippi, 1995).
6
Elizabeth Calhoun to Sokoloff, telegram dated Oct. 30, 1935, National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Work Projects Administration (WPA), Record Group 69 (hereafter cited as NARA RG69).
7
Catherine Parsons Smith, Making Music in Los Angeles: Trans- forming the Popular (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), Chapter 15.
8
John A. Emerson, "The WPA Federal Music Project in San Fran- cisco: A Guide to Events and Sources," in California's Musical Wealth: Sources for the Study of Music in California, papers pre- sented at the joint conference of the North- ern and Southern California Chapters of the Music Library Association, May 17-18, 1985 (n. p.: Southern California Chapter Music Library Association 1988), 7-19.
The WPA itself was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034.
("Roosevelt Grants $27,315,217 to Arts," New York Times, Sept. 8, 1935).
9
San Francisco News, Jan. 12, 1934;
Musical News 17, no. 1 (Jan. 1934): 26;
Alexander Fried, "The Sounding Board," Chronicle, May 27, 1934.
10
Walter Weber (president of Local 6) to Joseph Weber (president, American Federa- tion of Musicians), Jan. 19, 1934, published in Musical News 17, no. 2 (Feb. 1934): 1, 10.
11
"Sera Will Aid Needy Artists," Chronicle, May 18, 1934;
Musical News 17, no. 6 (June 1934): 5 and 17, no. 10 (Oct. 1934): 1-2;
"Relief Chorus Work Planned to Aid Singers," San Francisco News, July 27, 1934.
12
Ernst Bacon Papers, Stanford University, Department of Special Collec- tions and University Archives, M906 (here- after cited as Bacon Papers, Stanford), box 1, folder 35.
13
Bacon to Roy C. Pilling, July 10, 1934, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
14
Maxine Cushing, "What Women Are Thinking: Relief Roll and the Artistic [sic]," Chronicle, June 6, 1935.
Ada Clement Piano School (1917ff), was formally established in 1923.
15
Alexander Fried, "Music Wins SERA Aid," Examiner, Jan. 27, 1935.
16
"Federal Music Project Chief Arrives in S. F.," Chronicle, Sept. 6, 1935.
17
San Francisco Musical Association board minutes, San Francisco Symphony archives, June 23, 1915.
18
Redfern Mason, "Symphony Is Given by Sokoloff," Examiner, Sept. 4, 1916.
Herman Perlet in Jan. 1916 (Redfern Mason, "Sokoloff Wins Direc- torship," Examiner, Feb. 29, 1916).
Sokoloff tells the story of his audition and appoint- ment in his Reminiscences, ed. Eleanor Reynolds Sokoloff (La Jolla, CA: n.p., 1978), 128-35,
Jason Gibbs, "'The Best Music at the Lowest Price': People's Music in San Francisco," MIA NCC Newsletter 17, no. 1 (Fall 2002), http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MUSI/mlancc/ fao2nl.htm.
19
"Music World Joins in WPA's Job Drive," New York Times, Oct. 26, 1935.
20
Bacon, interview with Catherine Parsons Smith, July 10, 1988;
A Handbook of San Francisco Composers, History of Music in San Francisco Series, vol. 8, Work Projects Administration, Northern California, 1942.
21
Attl to Sokoloff, Oct. 1, 1935, NARA RG69, 211.1;
Alfred Metzger, "Music," Argo- naut, Oct. 11, 1935.
22
Attl's resignation became effective on Oct. 15 (Jacob Baker to Frank McLaughlin, Oct. 31, 1935, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 917).
23
Bacon to Sokoloff, telegram dated Oct. 15, 1935, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 917,
Calhoun to Sokoloff, telegram dated Oct. 30, 1935, NARA RG69, 211.1;
Bacon, "Music," Argonaut, Sept. 7, 1934.
24
Albert Greenbaum to Sokoloff, telegram dated Oct. 29, 1935;
Sokoloff to Calhoun, Oct. 31, 1935.
NARA RG69, 651.311, box 917.
25
(Isabel Morse Jones, "W.P.A. to Give Employment to Musicians on Relief Here," Los Angeles Times, Nov. 17, 1935;
Jannelle Jedd Warren- Findley, "Of Tears and Need: The Federal Music Project, 1935-1943," PhD diss., George Washington University, 1973, 44).
Sokoloff, Calhoun, and Ussher in Nov. 1935, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 917.
26
De Loriol's email mes- sages of Sept. 25, Oct. 4, and Oct. 8, 2001;
Jervis lived in De Loriol's home from 1954 to 1991.
Columbia graduates from 1926 (New York Times, June 1, 1926);
UCLA position (Neal Levy, "Society," Los Angeles Times, Jan. 7, 1927;
UCLA "Catalogue of Officers and Students," 1925-27;
UCLA sororities, UCLA yearbooks 1927 and 1928);
Leonie Rosenstiel and Louise Talma to Cath- erine Smith, 1989-90;
Times (London), Oct. 15, 1994;
27
Jonathan Elkus, interview with Leta Miller, Mar. 25, 2008;
29
Smith, notes from interview with Salin- ger, Mar. 25, 1989.
30
Presidential Letter no. 5020, Nov. 4, 1935, NARA RG69, WPA Central Files: State, California, 651.31.
31
Federal Music Project Manual: Preliminary Statement of Information (1935), 1.
32
"Conductor's Stand," The Baton, Oct. 1936 and Jan. 1937.
33
Bacon to Haley, June 5, 1937, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
34
Bacon, "Music," Argonaut, Apr. 20, 1934.
Smith, Mak- ing Music in Los Angeles, 229-35.
35
H. Wiley Hitchcock coined the now- common designations "cultivated" and "ver- nacular" in his Music in the United States: A Historical Introduction (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969).
36
Alfred Frankenstein, "Gastone Usigli Leads WPA Orchestra to Musical Heights," Chronicle, Sept. 16, 1936.
(thirteen let- ters among Usigli, Jervis, Ussher, Sokoloff, and others from Sept. 29 to Dec. 7, 1936;
NARA RG69, 651.311, boxes 918-19).
37
Sokoloff to Jervis, July 3, 1936, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 918.
Michael Fried, "W. Elmer Keeton and His WPA Chorus: Oakland's Musical Civil Rights Pioneers of the New Deal Era," California History 75, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 236- 49.
(Bindas, All of This Music Belongs to the Nation: The WPA's Federal Music Project and American Society [Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1995]).
38
Marjory M. Fisher, "Federal Government to Aid American Musicians," San Francisco News, Oct. 7, 1935.
39
Bacon, "Historical Resume of the San Francisco Music Project with Special Refer- ence to the Activities Connected with Mr. Ernst Bacon," typescript, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1, folder 45;
Bacon autobi- ography, 99-100.
40
Emerson, "The WPA Federal Music Proj- ect," puts the first concert on Jan. 9, 1936,
44
Jervis to Sokoloff, Mar. 25, 1936, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 917.
45
Jervis to Sokoloff, Mar. 25, 1936, NARA RG69, 651. 311, box 917.
Jervis of Feb. 7, 1936, Bacon Papers, Stan- ford, box 1;
46
Jervis to Bacon, Nov. 21, 1936, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
47
FMP publicity release, May 14, 1937, NARA RG69, Correspondence of Harry Hewes, box 29.
48
Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 2.
49
Marjory Fisher to Olin Downes (New York Times critic), July 2, 1937, NARA RG69, 651.311.
Songs of Eter- nity (Ernst Bacon [Orinda, CA: 1974],
50
Bacon's letter to her, July 9, 1936, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
51
Examiner, Nov. 2, 1936.
52
Hugh McClellan to Harry Hewes, Nov. 17, 1936, NARA RG69, box 26.
53
John Hobart, "Take Your Choice' Replete with Talent and Gin- ger," Chronicle, Dec. 4, 1936.
54
Bacon to Salinger, Oct. 5, 1936,
Salin- ger to Bacon, Oct. 11, 1936, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
55
Salinger to Bacon, Oct. 12, 1936, and his response, Oct. 26, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
56
Three letters, Salinger to Bacon, Oct. 26, 1936;
Bacon to Salinger, Oct. 28, 1936, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
57
Salinger to Bacon, Oct. 30, 1936, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1;
NARA, RG69, Cor- respondence of Harry Hewes, box 26.
58
Salinger to Bacon, Nov. 5, 1936, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
59
"Musical Satire Is Next for Columbia," Chronicle, Nov. 9, 1936 (the manuscript score and parts are in the Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 3).
61
Alfred Metzger, "Playing Politics with Music," Argonaut, June 11, 1937.
62
NARA RG69, box 16 (Monthly Reports).
63
Jervis, Sokoloff, Usigli, et al. Mar. 24-Apr. 2, 1937, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 919.
Usigli was still con- ducting in Oakland on Jan. 29, 1937,
(Charles Poore, "Oratorio Well Done by WPA," Oakland Tribune, Jan. 30, 1937).
Jervis first recommended him as Los Angeles supervisor on Jan. 11, 1937; agree- ment was reached on Mar. 8.
64
Cushing to Jervis, Mar. 4, 1937, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
65
Ussher to Sokoloff, Oct. 20, 1936, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 918.
66
Cornel Adam Lengyel, "Selec- tions from Memoirs: A Clockmaker's Boy," unpublished (courtesy of Jason Gibbs, San Francisco Public Library), 243.
67
Bacon to Jervis, Mar. 11, 1937.
68
Bacon to Ussher, Sept. 17, 1936,
Bacon to Jervis, Mar. 11, 1937, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
"The WPA and the American Composer," Musical Quarterly 26, no. 1 (Jan 1940): 101-12.
Melissa De Graaf, "The Records of the New York Composers' Forum: The Docu- mentary Motive and Music in the 1930s," Notes 64, no. 4 (June 2008): 688-701
"Aaron Copland and the Composers' Forum-Laboratory: A Post-Concert Discus- sion, February 24, 1937," in Aaron Copland and His World, ed. Carol J. Oja and Judith Tick (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005), 395-412.
69
Bacon to Jervis, Apr. 12;
Jervis to Bacon, Apr. 14;
Bacon to Jervis, Apr. 15, 1937 (all in Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1).
70
Bacon to Jervis, Apr. 16, 1937, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1.
71
Bacon to Sokoloff, Apr. 12, 1937, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1;
Bacon to Sokoloff, Apr. 20, Sokoloff to Bacon, Apr. 22, Sokoloff to Jervis, Apr. 22,
Jervis to Sokoloff, Apr. 26, 1937, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 919.
(Elkus to Hopkins, June 12, 1937, Elkus Papers, UCB, box 11).
72
Bacon autobiography, 103.
73
Bacon to Ussher, May 17, 1937, Bacon Papers, Stanford, box 1, and Jervis to Alvin Germeshausen (the new General Manager), May 19, 1937 with copy to Bacon, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 920.
74
Bacon to Sokoloff, May 20, 1937, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 920;
Bacon/Stoll to Jer- vis, May 25, 1937, Elkus Papers, UCB, box 11;
Sokoloff's warning to Bacon is contained in his letter of April 22.
75
Mrs. G. McCarthy and Lulu J. Blumberg to Hopkins, both on June 4, 1937, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 920.
76
Sokoloff to Jervis, May 27, 1937;
Sokoloff to Woodward, June 17, 1937;
Sokoloff to Bacon, June 7, 1937 (all in NARA RG69, 651.311, box 920).
77
Jervis to Sokoloff, May 29, 1937, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 920.
78
(NARA RG69, 651.311, box 920, California State report for June 1937).
(Elkus to Sokoloff, July 7, 1937, NARA RG69 651.311, box 920).
79
George Davis (Advisory Board member) to Albert Elkus, June 25, 1937, Elkus Papers, UCB, box 11: "Miss Jervis has . . . finally gained the consent oF Hertz";
Hertz's appointment, San Francisco Public Library scrapbook, 792.91 Sa52.
80
Bacon taught first at Hamilton College, then at Converse College in South Carolina, and finally at Syracuse University. He died on Mar. 16, 1990.
81
Marie Hicks Davidson, "Hertz Hails Federal Music Plan as Big," Call Bulletin, July 8, 1937.
Sokoloff visited San Francisco in 1935;
(Fisher, "Federal Government to Aid American Musicians," and Warren-Findley, "OF Tears and Need," 262-66).
82
"Hertz New Federal S. F. Music Director," Call, June 23, 1937,
Jervis on July 28, NARA RG69, box 2.
83
Jervis to Sokoloff, Oct. 9, 1937, NARA RG69, Correspondence oF Harry Hewes, box 26.
84
"Dime Concert Series Opens; Big Suc- cess" and Fisher, "'SRO' Crowd Hears First ioc Symphony," News, Aug. 31, 1938.
85
Recordings of the Northern Califor- nia Negro Chorus, ca. 1942, Library oF Congress, control numbers 99612096, 99470851, 00580471.
86
"Musical Santa Claus," Free Press, Dec. 20, 1938. The Free Press articles ran from Jan. 18, 1938, through June 27, 1939.
87
Jervis to Sokoloff, May 13, 1938, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 922. Her resignation let- ter of June 8 is in box 923.
88
Robert Hinckley and Clayton Triggs to Ellen Woodward, Dec. 11, 1936, NARA RG69, 651.311, box 919.
89
Lengyel, "Memoirs," 250-64.
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