Notes

Notes
1
Charles Outland, Man-Made Disaster: The Story of St. Francis Dam (Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1977), 51-150, 249
J. David Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster: Mulholland and the St. Francis Dam," Southern California Quarterly 77 (Spring/ Summer 1995): 89, passim
David G. McCullough, The Johnstown Flood (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968).
3
Abraham Hoffman, Vision or Villainy: Origins of the Owens Valley-Los Angeles Water Controversy (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1981)
William Kahrl, Water and Power: The Conflict over Los Angeles' Water Supply in the Owens Valley (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982)
John Walton, Western Times and Water Wars: State, Culture, and Rebellion in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992)
Norris Hundley, jr., The Great Thirst: Californians and Water—A History, rev ed. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001), 141-171.
4
J. David Rogers, "Reassessment of the St. Francis Dam Failure," in Bernard W Pipkin and Richard J. Proctor, eds., Engineering Geology Practice in Southern California (Belmont, CA: Association of Engineering Geologists, Southern California Section, Special Publication No. 4, 1992), 639-666
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 1-109.
Ann Lucius, "Cause of Dam Failure Discovered . . . Almost 70 Years Later," Water Operation and Maintenance Bulletin (June 1997): 33-36
L.A. Grim Society Interview with J. David Rogers about the St. Francis Dam (Feb. 2000)
5
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 237 ("In the final analysis ...")
Rogers, "Reassess- ment of the St. Francis Dam Failure," 639 ("a modern . . ."), 663
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 82
Grim Society Interview, answer to question 20 ("civil engineering community").
6
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 88
7
Los Angeles Times, Oct. 25, 1992 ("The Night. . .")
Margaret Leslie Davis, Rivers in the Desert: William Mulholland and the Inventing of Los Angeles (New York: Harper Collins, 1993), 264 ("exoneration")
Ruth Pittman, Roadside History of California (Missoula, MT: Mountain West Publishing Co., 1995), 233 ("geological knowledge . . .")
Kim Weir, Southern California Handbook (Chico, CA: Moon Publications, 1998), 230 ("The general condemnation of. . .")
Catherine Mulholland, William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles (Berkeley: Uni- versity Press of California, 2000), 382, note 4 ("masterly"; "apparent vindication . . .").
Lucius, "Cause of Dam Failure Discovered," 33-36
Kermit Pattison, "Why Did the Dam Burst?" Invention and Technology 13 (Summer 1998): 23-31
Paul H. Rippens, "The Night of the Flood: The Failure of the St. Francis Dam," The Branding Iron: The Westerners, Los Angeles Corral (No. 212, Summer 1998): 1, 3-7.
Henry Petroski, "St. Francis Dam," American Scientist 91 (March-April 2003): 116 ("many of the design features . . ."), 117 ("William Mulholland and his staff. . .").
8
Allan Kelly, Historical Sketch of the Los Angeles Aqueduct (Los Angeles: Times-Mirror Printing and Binding House, 1913)
Los Angeles Department of Public Service, Complete Report on the Construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct (Los Angeles: Department of Public Service of the City of Los Angeles, 1916).
Kelly, Historical Sketch, 29-30
Los Angeles Department of Public Service, Complete Report, 25, 273-274.
9
Los Angeles Board of Public Service Com- missioners,Ezra Scattergood, "Respecting St. Francis Reservoir" (Aug. 31, 1933), 2 ("provide emergency water supply . . .") in A. J. Mullen to John R. Haynes, Feb. 21, 1934, William Mulholland Collection, Historical Records Program, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Archives
Twenty-first Annual Report, 1922, 6, 8-9
Los Angeles Board of Public Service Com- missioners, Twenty-second Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1923 (Los Angeles: Board of Public Service Com- missioners, 1923), 5-9, 23-25, 24 ("surplus water ...").
10
Kahrl, Water and Power, 245-262, 311-312, 340-347
Hoffman, Vision or Villainy, 172- 173, 260-261
Los Angeles Department of Public Works, Bureau of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of the Los Angeles Aqueduct to the Board of Public Works (Los Angeles: Department of Public Works, 1911), 42 ("exceedingly rough . . .").
11
Joseph B. Lippincott to John R. Freeman, March 29, 1928, box 54, John R. Freeman Papers (MC51), Institute Archives and Special Collections, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.
12
Scattergood's August 31, 1933, memo, "Respecting St. Francis Reservoir,"
Memo attached to A. J. Mullen to John R. Haynes, Feb. 21, 1934, William Mulholland Collection.
13
Calif Statutes, chap. 337, sec. 2 (1917): 517- 518.
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," p. 23
14
Robert W. Matson, William Mulholland: A Forgotten Forefather (Stockton, CA: Pacific Center for Western Studies, University of the Pacific, 1976), 7
J. B. Lippincott, "William Mulholland—Engineer, Pioneer, Raconteur," Civil Engineering 2 (Feb.-March 1941): 106
Catherine Mulholland, William Mulholland, 28
Harvey A. Van Norman, "William Mulholland," American Society of Civil Engineers Transactions 101 (1936): 1605.
15
Vincent Ostrom, Water & Politics: A Study of Water Policies and Administration in the Development of Los Angeles (Los Angeles: Haynes Foundation, 1953), 91-100.
16
Lippincott, "William Mulholland," 161.
17
"Transcript of Testimony and Verdict of the Coroner's Jury in the Inquest over Victims of St. Francis Dam Disaster" (here- after Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest), 615-616, Book 26902, box 13, folder 2, Richard Courtney Collection, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA
Ostrom, Water & Politics, 98-99.
18
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 615.
19
Lippincott, "William Mulholland," 106-107 (George Read quotes)
W. W. Hurlbut, "The Man and the Engineer," Western Construction News 1 (April 25, 1926): 44 ("an outstanding figure . . .")
Mats on, William Mulholland, 2 ("If Bill Mulholland should say . . .").
20
Hurlbut, "The Man and the Engineer," 44 ("the public at large realizes . . ."; "Since time immemorial . . .").
21
N.A.F. Smith, A History of Dams (Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1972), 195-206
Smith, "The Failure of the Bouzey Dam in 1895," Construction History 10 (1994), 47-65.
22
Smith, A History of Dams, notes that "concern about the effects of water percolating through a dam [explains] . . . why it was fitted with a network of drainage tunnels, apparently the first dam to feature such equipment" (p. 206).
23
C. L. Harrison, "Provision for Uplift and Icethrust in Masonry Dams," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 65 (1912): 142-225
Charles E. Morrison and Orrin L. Brodie, Masonry Dam Design Including High Masonry Dams (New York: John Wiley, 1916), 1-15.
24
George Holmes Moore, "Neglected First Principles of Masonry Dam Design," Engineering News 70 (Sept. 4, 1913): 442-445.
25
F. H. Newell to A. H. Dimock, April 16, 1912, entry 3, file: "Discussion Related to Dams," Denver Federal Records Center, Record Group 115 (Reclamation Service).
26
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 24.
27
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 332-334.
Weid Canyon Dam appear in "Air and Water Jet Cleans Concrete Surface for Next Pour," Engineering News-Record 93 (Aug. 28, 1924): 351
"Truck Hauls Plums Directly Onto Dam," Engineering News- Record 93 (Oct. 23, 1924): 680.
Los Angeles Board of Public Service Commissioners, Twenty-second Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1923 (Los Angeles, 1923), 9.
St. Francis Dam's construction appear in "Los Angeles Building New Dam in San Francis- quito Canyon," Engineering News-Record 94 (March 19, 1925): 497
"St. Francis Dam Added to Los Angeles Water System," Engineering News-Record 96 (May 6, 1926): 743.
28
Los Angeles Department of Public Service, Complete Report on the Construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, 250
29
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 220 ("the cross sectional transfer profile . . .").
Charles E. Morrison and Orrin L. Brodie, Masonry Dam Design, Including High Masonry Dams (New York: John Wiley, 1916)
William Creager, Masonry Dams (New York: John Wiley, 1917).
Report of the Commission Appointed by Governor C.C. Young to Investi-gate the Causes Leading to the Failure of the St. Francis Dam near Saugus, California (Sacramento, CA: State Printing Office, 1928), 31.
30
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 239, 346
Ibid., 219, 332
31
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 225
32
Ibid., 334.
33
Ibid., 336-337.
4
"St. Francis Dam Added to Los Angeles Water System," Engineering News-Record 96 (May 6, 1926): 743.
35
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 29-30, 230 ("the dam had been born with a stub toe").
"Los Angeles Building New Dam in San Francisquito Canyon," Engineering News- Record 94 (March 19, 1925): 497.
typewritten transcript, "Re St. Francis Dam Disaster: Official Action Taken by the Board of Public Service Commissioners and the Board of Water and Power Com- missioners of the City of Los Angeles Relative to the Saint Francis Reservoir," Outland Collection, Ventura County Museum of History and Art, Ventura, CA On a related issue, it should be noted that, in November 1924
Kahrl, Water and Power, 292-294.
36
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 30-36, 46, 49, and 51.
38
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 69, 66-68, 193-194 passim.
39
Report of the Commission Appointed by Governor C.C. Young, 16 ("the foundation under the . . ."; "The west end . . ."; "The rush of water . . ."; "quickly followed . . .")
Elwood Mead, Louis C. Hill, and Lansing H. Beach, Report of the Committee Appointed by the City Council of Los Angeles to Investi- gate and Report the Cause of the Failure of the St. Francis Dam (Los Angeles: March 31, 1928), 20 ("red conglomerate"; "the sequence of failure . . .")
24 ("defective foundations"), Los Angeles Board of Water and Power Commissioners, file WPOi-8o:i, Historical Records Program, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power.
Robert T. Hill, C. F. Tolman, and D. W. Murphy, Report on the Failure of the St. Francis Dam on March 12,1928 (Los Angeles: April 12, 1928), ibid., file WPOi-80:2.
40
Report of the Commission Appointed by Governor C.C. Young, 16 ("With such a for- mation . . ."), 18 ("defective foundations")
"Engineering Committee of the City Council," 735-736.
41
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, "Verdict of Coroner's Jury," i-ii.
"Verdict of Coroner's Jury" is a separately paginated section (pp. i-ii).
42
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, "Verdict of Coroner's Jury," see pp. 2 and 5
43
Ibid., see pp. 2-3 and 10-11
44
Ibid., see pp. 5, 10-11
45
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 750-753.
46
Halbert P. Gillette, "Three Unreliable Reports on the St. Francis Dam Failure," Water Works 67 (May 1928): 177-178
Gillette, "Some Lessons Taught by the St. Francis Dam Failure," ibid., 178-179
Gillette, "The Cause of the St. Francis Dam Failure," ibid., 181-186.
47
Gillette, "The Cause of the St. Francis Dam Failure," 182 ("the schist on the east bank . . .").
48
Charles H. Lee, "Theories of the Cause and Sequence of Failure of the St. Francis Dam," Western Construction News 3 (June 25, 1928): 405-408, 407 ("quite possibl[y] . . .")
408 ("the immediate cause . . .")
ibid. (May 25, 1928): 343
Charles H. Lee, "Discussion" (May 25, 1928), Charles H. Lee Papers, file MS/76/1 98L14C, Water Resources Center Archives, University of California, Berkeley.
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 655.
49
"Carl Ewald Grunsky," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 100 (1935): 1591-1595
CE. and E.L. Grunsky, "St. Francis Dam Failure at Midnight, March 12-13, I928," Western Construction News 3 (May 25,1928): 314-320
Bailey Willis, "Report on the Geology of St. Francis Damsite, Los Angles County, California," Western Construction News 3 (June 25,1928): 409-413, 409 ("geological studies ...")
Outland, Man- Made Disaster (1977), 26 ("brilliant engineer").
50
Grunsky and Grunsky, "St. Francis Dam Failure," 314-320, 314 ("independently"; "which are in . . .")
Willis, "Report on the Geology of St. Francis Damsite," 409-413.
51
Grunsky and Grunsky, "St. Francis Dam Failure," 319 ("a great hydrostatic force under . . .")
320 ("At the west end . . ."; "The old slide . . .")
Willis, "Report on the Geology of St. Francis Damsite," 410 ("the schist. . . is traversed . . ."; "When it [the old land- slide] . . .")
412 ("The east abutment was located . . .")
413 ("but the critical situation . . .").
52
Grunsky and Grunsky, "St. Francis Dam Failure," 316 ("no measures . . ."; "thorough hillside ..."), 319 ("at a full reservoir ...").
53
"Sixth Report on St. Francis Dam Offers New Theories," Engineering News-Record 100 (June 7, 1928): 895 ("old slide"; "lower portion"; "became active . . .")
"Sliding ver- sus Scouring," Engineering News-Record 100 (June 7, 1928): 879
C. E. Grunsky and E. L. Grunsky, "The Grunsky Report on the Failure of the St. Francis Dam," Engineering News-Record 101 (July 26,1928): 144
Report of the Commission Appointed by Governor C.C. Young, 18 ("defective foundations")
"Essential Facts Concerning the Failure of the St. Francis Dam: Report of the Committee of the Board of Directors," Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers (Oct. 1929): 2147-2163.
C. S. Walters, Dam Geology (London: Butterworth, 1962), 48-49
54
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 193 ("A worried water-short. . ."), 194 ("Governor Hunt knew . . .")
Beverley Bowen Moeller, Phil Swing and Boulder Dam (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971), in (without tying too close . . .").
55
Mulholland's association with Boulder Dam is noted in Mulholland, William Mulholland, 279-284, 305, 316-317.
56
Brian Q. Cannon, "We Are Now Entering a New Era: Federal Reclamation and the Fact Finding Commission of 1923- 1924," Pacific Historical Review 66 (May 1997): 185-211.
57
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Rec- lamation, Boulder Canyon Project Final Reports, Part IV—Design and Construction, Boulder Dam (Denver: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1941), iv.
58
Report of the Commission Appointed by Governor C.C. Young, 16 ("such a dam . . .")
18 ("there is nothing . . .").
59
"William Mulholland Still a Big Man," Western Construction News 3 (April 10,1928): 223
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest), 378 ("Don't blame anybody else . . .").
60
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 546 ("rumors, suspicions ...")
546-547 ("an officer received . . . ").
61
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 16 ("We overlooked ...")
23 ("I have a sus- picion . . .")
25 ("Vulnerable against. . .")
376-377 ("I have a very strong opinion . . ."), 377 ("tell us")
Catherine Mulholland, William Mulholland, 328 ("In accepting . . .").
62
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 25
63
Ibid., 379, 380
64
Ibid., 379 ("my men . . .")
380 ("How much . . ."; "Didn't spend . . ."; "over the mark . . .").
65
Ibid., 621-623
66
"Wilbur Fisk McClure," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 91 (1927): 1106-1109
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 379 ("I think there was . . .").
Kahrl, Water and Power, 294.
67
Donald C. Jackson's, Building the Ultimate Dam: John S. Eastwood and the Control of Water in the West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995), 198-205.
69
"Little Rock Creek Dam. Test on Cement Specimen No. 9238. test by Raymond G. Osborne, Los Angeles, September 22,1922"; "Little Rock Creek Dam, E.C. Eaton, November 27,1922"; Little Rock Creek Dam, Memoran- dums of Trips on December 14th and 21st, 1922, E.C. Eaton, 12/24/22 "; "Little Rock Dam, E.C. Eaton, September 11, 1923"; and "Little Rock Dam, E.C. Eaton, January 22nd, 1924" (all memos in Littlerock Dam file, Division of Safety of Dams)
WF. McClure to Littlerock Creek Irrigation District, June 5, 1924, Littlerock Creek Irrigation District files, Littlerock, California
Jackson, Building the Ultimate Dam, 306-307, note 75.
70
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 87-88.
71
"Verdict of the Coroner's Jury," Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, pp. 1-11, 9
100 (May 10, 1928): 734-735, 735 ("infallibility in matters . . .")
Calif Statutes, chap. 337, sec. 2 (1917): 517-518, chap. 766 (1929): 1505-1514.
A.H. Markwart and M.C. Hinderlider, "Public Supervision of Dams: A Symposium," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 98 (1933): 828-887.
72
Abraham Hoffman, "Charles F. Outland, Local Historian," Southern California Quarterly yy (Spring/Summer, 1995): 165- 180.
73
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), chaps. 12-13
Grunsky and Grunsky, "St. Francis Dam Failure," 314-323
Willis, "Report on the Geology of St. Francis Damsite," 409-413.
74
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 232 ("admittedly . . ."), 235 ("Ever since . . .").
75
Ibid., 224, 235 ("mountain of schist"; "real villain").
Outland wrote that the east abutment gave way in a "huge slide action with a mighty lateral thrust" that produced "sharp tilting of the dam's center section" (p. 224)
76
Ibid., 237 ("In the final analysis ...").
77
Ibid., 34-37, 237 ( "No one . . . ")
Los Angeles Department of Public Works, Bureau of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of the Los Angeles Aqueduct to the Board of Public Works (Los Angeles: Department of Public Works, 1911), 42 ("the [aqueduct] line . . .").
78
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 201- 202 ("Construction photographs . . .").
79
Ibid., 29, 30 ("Changes in plans . . ."), 230 ("the dam had been born with a stub toe").
80
Rogers, "Reassessment of the St. Francis Dam Failure," 639 ("the dam failure sequence .. . ).
81
Lucius, "Cause of Dam Failure Discovered . . . Almost 70 Years Later," 34 ("when the ground . . ."; "we know now . . . "; "the thing keeping . . .").
82
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 90 ("definitive work ...").
83
Rogers, "Reassessment of the St. Francis Dam Failure," 639, 663 ("omission of any . . ."; "weak link . . .")
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 82 ("omission of any . . ."; "weak link . . .").
84
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 27-28 ("potentially dangerous . . .").
Rogers indicates a maximum base width for the dam of 148 feet on p. 29.
Rogers, "Reassessment of the St. Francis Dam Failure," 639
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 29-30, 201.
85
Outland, Man-Made Disaster (1977), 237 ("responsibility"; "alone")
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 81-82 ("Mulholland and his . . ."; "did not completely appreciate . . ."), 86 ("assigning blame . . ."), 89 ("larger culprits"; "a proper appreciation . . ."; "incorporation of. . .")
Rogers, "Reas- sessment of the St. Francis Dam Failure," 633, 639
86
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 28-29.
88
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 30.
89
Norman A. F. Smith, "The Failure of the Bouzey Dam in 1895," Construction History 10 (1994), 47-65.
90
I. Davidson, "George Deacon (1843-1909) and the Vrynwy Works," Transactions of the Newcomen Society 59 (1987-1988): 81-95
Serge Leliavsky, Uplift in Gravity Dams (London: Constable & Co., 1958), 2-7.
John D. Van Buren, "Notes on High Masonry Dams," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 24 (1895): 493-520.
91
Edward Godfrey, "The Failure of the Reservoir Wall at Winston," Engineering News 50 (Dec. 3, 1904): 672.
92
Edward Godfrey, "Failure of the Hot Spring Dam," Engineering News 58 (July 11, 1908): 55
Charles E. Morrison and Orrin L. Brodie, High Masonry Dam Design (New York: John Wiley, 1910), 1-3
93
"The Failure of a Concrete Dam at Austin, Pa. on Sept. 30, 1911," Engineering News 66 (Oct. 5, 1911): 419-422
Marie Kathern Nuschke, The Dam That Could Not Break (Coudersport, PA: The Potter Enterprise, i960) lists seventy-eight victims by name (p. 40).
94
"John Ripley Freeman," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 98 (1933): 1471-1476.
95
John R. Freeman, "Some Thoughts Suggested by the Recent Austin Dam Failure Regarding Text Books on Hydraulic Engi- neering and Dam Design in General," Engineering News 66 (Oct. 19, 1911): 462- 463, 462 ("the cause that probably led . . ."; "uplift pressures may possibly occur . . .").
96
Alfred D. Flinn, "The New Kensico Dam," 772-779, 773 ("upward water pressure . . .")
Wegmann, Design and Construction of Dams (seventh ed., 1922), 431-433.
97
Arthur P. Davis to L. C. Hill, Oct. 11, 1912 ("was caused by . . . "), entry 3, box 793, Rio Grande Project, General Administration and Projects 1902-1919, Record Group 115, Federal Records Center, Denver.
98
E. H. Baldwin, "Excavation for Foundation of Elephant Butte Dam," Engineering News 73 (Jan. 14, 1915): 49-55
Baldwin, "Grouting the Foundation of the Elephant Butte Dam," Engineering News-Record 78 (June 8, 1917): 625-628
Arthur P. Davis, Irrigation Works Constructed by the United States Government (New York: John Wiley, 1917), 243-245.
99
Davis, Irrigation Works, 117
C. E. Grunsky, "Comments on a Few Dams and Reservoirs" The Military Engineer 23 (Nov.-Dec. 1930): 529.
100
Walter Ward, "Building Black Canyon Irrigation Dam in Western Idaho," Engineering News-Record 93 (Nov. 20, 1924): 818-823, 818 ("drilled into the bedrock . . ."; "the purpose of this. . .").
101
F. W Hanna, "Designing a High Storage Dam for the Mokelumne Project," Engineering News-Record 100 (March 15, 1928): 444-446.
102
Harrison, "Provision for Uplift and Ice- thrust in Masonry Dams," 142-225, 221 ("Each of the twenty . . .").
103
C. R. Weidner, "Experiments on Uplift Pressure in Masonry Dams," Engineering News 70 (July 31, 1913): 202-205
Letter from Edward Godfrey, Engineering News 70 (Aug. 21, 1913): 371.
104
Chester W. Smith, The Construction of Masonry Dams (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1915), 100-109.
105
Morrison and Brodie, Masonry Dam Design Including High Masonry Dams, 8-9 ("There are several ways . . .; "in the foundation . . .").
106
William Creager, Masonry Dams (New York: John Wiley, 1917), 12, 13, 16-18, 25-33, 46, 48-59, 61, 63, 68, 69, 79-98, 98-104, 117-119, 120-130, 135, 172.
107
Ibid., vii ("the methods of design described ..,").
108
"Arched Gravity Dams to Be Built at Lower Otay and Barrett Dam Sites," Engineering News 74 (Aug. 12, 1916): 195-196, 195 ("continuous 12-[inch] sub drain . . .").
109
"Concrete Dam on Eel River Built on Shale Foundation," Engineering News-Record 86 (May 5, 1921): 750-754, 750 ("grouting below the cut-off wall . . ."; "carry off seep- age water . . .").
110
"Exchequer Dam Construction Plant Built in Narrow Canyon," Engineering News- Record 94 (May 28, 1925): 880-884.
111
"Plant and Program on the Hetch Hetchy Dam," Engineering News-Record 89 (Sept. 21, 1922): 464-468, 467 ("the [3' x 3' x 3'] porous concrete blocks . . .").
O'Shaughnessy Dam is documented in "Drainage System Showing Galleries, Wells, and Contraction Joints-Sheet No. 3," signed by Michael M. O'Shaughnessy in May 1919.
112
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 487-488.
113
Ezra B. Whitman, "The New Loch Raven Dam at Baltimore, Md.," Engineering News 72 (Aug. 13, 1914): 331-337
"Upward Water Pressure Test Pipes Constructed in Concrete Dam," Engineering News-Record 82 (May 15, 1919): 954
"New Dam Will Double Water Supply of Portland, Ore.," ibid. 98 (May, 26, 1927): 842-846
B. E. Torpen, "The Bull Run Storage Dam for Portland, Ore.," ibid. 103 (Aug. 8, 1929): 204-208.
Ibid., 204.
114
Fred A. Noetzli, "Types of Storage Dams and Their Adaptation to Western Conditions," Modern Irrigation: The Magazine of Applied Hydraulics 3 (June 1927): 21 ("Conservative engineering requires . . .").
Julian Hinds, "Upward Pressures Under Dams: Experiments by the United States Bureau of Reclamation," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 93 (1929): 1527-1582
D. C. Henny, "Stability of Straight Concrete Gravity Dams," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 99 (1934): 1041-1123
Arthur Casagrande, "Seepage Through Dams," Journal of the New England Water Works Association 51 (June 1937): 131-170
H. de B. Parsons, "Hydrostatic Uplift in Pervious Soils," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 93 (1929): 1317-1366
E. W. Lane, "Security from Under-Seepage on Earth Foundations," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 100 (1935): 1235- 1351
L. F. Harza, "Uplift and Seepage under Dams on Sand," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 100 (1935): 1352- 1406
Ivan E. Houk and Kenneth B. Kenner, "Masonry Dams—A Symposium: Basic Design Assumptions," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 106 (1941): 1115-1130
Serge Leliavsky, "Experiments of Effective Uplift Area in Gravity Dams," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 112 (1947): 444-487
L. F. Harza "The Significance of Pore Pressure in Hydraulic Structures," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 114 (1949): 193-289.
Harza claimed that "by deductive reasoning it is shown that under and within any concrete structure . . . hydro- static uplift acts over the entire horizontal area, instead of over one half or two thirds as commonly assumed" (p. 193).
115
Kahrl, Water and Power, 21.
116
Jackson, Building the Ultimate Dam, 112, 114-115.
117
A.J. Wiley to H.N. Savage, June 9, 1917, folder 32:1, Hiram N. Savage Papers, Water Resources Center Archives, Berkeley.
118
wegmann, Design and Construction of Dams (7th ed., 1922), 433.
119
Arthur E. Morgan, The Miami Conservancy District (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1951), 152- 153, 161-174
U.S. Reclamation Service, Third Annual Report of the Reclamation Service, 1903-04 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1905), 41.
120
Savage, "Design of the Owyhee Irrigation Dam," 663 ("The recent. . .").
121
William Mulholland to Arthur Powell Davis, Feb. 5, 1912, ("I requested . . . "), file WM OF-3-13, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Archives.
122
Allen Hazen and Leonard Metcalf, "Middle Section of Upstream Side of Calaveras Dam Slips into Reservoir," Engineering News-Record (April 4, 1918): 679-681
"Failure of Part of Calaveras Dam," Western Engineering 9 (May 1918): 173-174
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 23 ("founding fathers").
123
Michael M. O'Shaughnessy to John R. Freeman, Oct. 14, 1913, reprinted in O'Shaughnessy, Hetch Hetchy: Its Origin and History (San Francisco: The Author, 1934), 68-69
124
F.C. Finkle to John R. Haynes, Aug. 12, 1931, folder: L.A. Dept. of Water & Power, Consulting Engineer-Frederick Finkle, box 118, Collection 1241, John R. Haynes Collection, Department of Special Collections, Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles.
Finkle, "Los Angeles Aqueduct Mistakes," Journal of Electricity, Power and Gas 34 (Jan. 9, 1915): 27-28
Gervaise Purcell, W.H. Sanders, F.C. Finkle, and Chester B. Loomis, Report of Municipally Manufactured Cements, Los Angeles Aqueduct (Philadelphia, [1912]).
125
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 82 ("weak link . . .")
Michael M. O'Shaughnessy to Edward Hyatt, Oct. 3, 1928 ("Los Angeles made an error . . . "), file: Supervision of Dams, 1928, Public Utility Commission Records, California State Archives, Sacramento
126
Grim Society Interview, answer to ques- tion 23 ("Achilles heel"; "his thriftiness"; "to build enormous . . ."; "led to many aspects . . .").
127
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 82 ("did not completely . . .").
128
Lucius, "Cause of Dam Failure Discovered . . . Almost 70 Years Later," 34 ("inherent redundancies").
129
Rogers, "A Man, a Dam and a Disaster," 88.
130
Outland, Man-Made disaster (1977), 167 ("KILL MULHOLLAND!")
Catherine Mulhol- land, William Mulholland, 326 ("threats were made . . ."), 327.
His resignation from the Bureau of Water Works and Supply is noted in "Mulholland Retires After 50-Year Service at Los Angeles," Engineering News- Record 101 (Nov. 22, 1928): 785.
131
Los Angeles Times, April 26-29, 1928
Catherine Mulholland, William Mulholland, 242-243, 330 ("for producing . . .")
Davis, Rivers in the Desert, 245-246
"William Mulholland—Maker of Los Angeles," Western Construction News 8 (Aug. 1933): 330 ("as a man of history . . .")
"William Mulholland Still a Big Man," Western Construction News 3 (April 10, 1928): 223
"Two Prominent Engineers Die," Western Construction News 10 (Aug. 1935): 240 ("sterling quality")
Los Angeles County Coroner's Inquest, 378 ("don't blame anybody else ...").
Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 101 (1936): 1604- 1608
Civil Engineering 9 (March 1939): 199.
132
Arthur P. Davis to John Freeman, March 28, 1928
Arthur P. Davis, "Inspection Report of St. Francis Dam, March 19,1928," 3 ("the laminated condition . . ."; "in other words . . .").
133
Joseph B. Lippincott to John R. Freeman, March 26, 1928, Box 54, Freeman Papers.
Outland's Man-Made Disaster (1977), 193
134
John R. Freeman to Joseph B. Lippincott, April 4, 1928, Box 54, Freeman Papers.
135
John R. Freeman to Caleb Saville, March 29, 1928, ibid.
136
Calif Statutes, chap. 766 (1929): 1505- 1514.
137
A.H. Markwart and M.C. Hinderlider, "Public Supervision of Dams: A Symposium," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 98 (1933): 828-887
Chuck B. Wong, California Division of Safety of Dams, to Norris Hundley, July 15, 2002
Irving Sherman to Jon Wilkman, Norris Hundley, and others, Nov. 14, 2001 ("If it had not been . . .")
138
Jackson, Building the Ultimate Dam, 240- 242.
N. J. Schnitter, "The Evolution of the Arch Dam—Part Two," Water Power and Dam Construction 28 (Nov. 1976): 19-21
139
Hundley, Great Thirst (2001),
1
Peter Tamony, "Jazz: The Word, and Its Extension to Music," Americanisms: Content and Continuum 23 (December 1968): 13
San Francisco Call Bulletin (March 6, 1913)
2
Neil Leonard, Jazz and the White Americans: The Acceptance of a New Art Form (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962)
Tom Reed, The Black Music History of Los Angeles—Its Roots (Los Angeles: Black Accent on LA Press, 1993)
Bette Yarbrough Cox, Central Avenue—Its Rise and Fall (1890-1955) including the Musical Renaissance of Black Los Angeles (Los Angeles: BEEM Publications, 1993)
Lawrence Gushee, "New Orleans- Area Musicians on the West Coast, 1908- 1925," The Black Music Research Journal, 9, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 1-18.
Frederick Ramsey and Charles E. Smith, Jazzmen (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1939).
3
Lawrence Gushee, "How the Creole Band Came To Be," Black Music Research Journal 8, no. 1 (1988): 83-100
Will Johnson and his Creole band were in Los Angeles in 1907, p. 93
Los Angeles, p. 94.
Phil Pastras, Dead Man Blues: Jelly Roll Morton Way Out West (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).
Gushee, "A Preliminary Chronology of the Early Career of Ferd 'Jelly Roll' Morton," American Music 3 (Winter 1985): 389-412
Alan Lomax, Mister Jelly Roll, (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1950), i59ff
Arnold Genthe, As I Remember (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1936), 175-76
Chris Ellis, "Some West Coast Bands of the 1920s," Storyville 21 (February/March 1969): 84-85
Philip F. Elwood, "The Role of San Francisco in Jazz History," Metronome 78 (August 1961): 11-15
George Schuyler, Black and Conservative: The Autobiography of George S. Schuyler (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1966), 49
Tom Stoddard, Jazz on the Barbary Coast (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1998 [original 1982])
Douglas Henry Daniels, Pioneer Urbanites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980), 144-45
Hal Holly, "West Coast Jazz," Down Beat 22 (March 9, 1955): 5.
Frank Driggs and Harris Lewine, Black Beauty, White Heat: A Pictorial History of Classic Jazz, 1920-1950 (New York: William Morrow, 1982), 182
Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz: A Family Album (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984)
Samuel B. Charters, Jazz: A History of the New York Scene (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962)
4
Rose and Souchon, New Orleans Jazz, noted the number of Crescent City musicians who went to Los Angeles, pp. 93-96, 103, 105, 107, no, 113, and 123
5
Bricktop (with James Haskins), Bricktop (New York: Atheneum, 1983), 64
Driggs and Levine, Black Beauty, 182.
6
Driggs and Levine, Black Beauty, p. 183
Reb Spikes, Jazz Oral History Program interview, Institute of Jazz Studies, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, Reel 1, transcript p. 25 (hereafter, inter- views from this collection are referred to as JOHP).
7
Central Avenue Sounds: Jazz in Los Angeles (1921-1956) (Los Angeles: Rhino Records, 1999)
John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz: Storyville to Swing Street (New York: Time Life Records Special Edition, 1978), 248-249.
8
Benjamin "Reb" Spikes JOHP, Reel 4, p. 5
Reel 1, pp. 31-32
Reel 3, p. 33
Reel 4, pp. 3-4 and 109-110
Paul Williams, Reel 4, pp. 23, 129.
"Reb Spikes—Music Maker," Storyville 21 (February/March 1969): 101-103
Reed, Black Music History of Los Angeles, 44. Los Angeles City Directory, 1930, p. 1651
John Bentley and Ralph W Miller, "West Coast Jazz in the 20s," Jazz Monthly 7 (May 1961): 4-7.
"'Ragtime' Billy Tucker Takes His Follies to Honolulu," California Eagle (June 13, 1924): 8
Tucker taking his show, "Darktown Follies," to Hawaii.
H. O. Brun, The Story of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band (New York: Da Capo Press, 1977).
Anthony Charles Sweeting, The Dunbar Hotel and Central Avenue Renaissance, 1781-1950 (Ph.D. dis- sertation, UCLA, 1992).
Bruce M. Tyler, From Harlem to Hollywood: The Struggle for Racial and Cultural Democracy (New York: Garland Publishing, 1992.
9
Helen McNamara, "Pack My Bags and Make My Getaway: The Odyssey of Jimmy Rushing," Down Beat 32 (April 8, 1965): 22
Douglas Hague, "Jimmy Rushing Tells His Story," Jazz Journal 10 (September 1957): p. 1.
10
Black Los Angeles, "Negro Cities-Los Angeles," California Eagle (December 26, 1924): 1.
"Humming Bird Café Will Have Brilliant Opening Saturday Evening," California Eagle (June 7, 1924): 10.
Curtis Mosby was mentioned in the Indianapolis Freeman (July 31,1915): 5
Chicago Defender (July 8, 1931): 5.
Marshal Royal discusses Mosby's importance in his JOHP interview, pp. 33-34.
Lawrence Brown, JOHP, Reel 3, pp. 6-7
Los Angeles City Directory, p. 1405
Theo Zwicky, "The Curtis Mosby Story," Storyville 21 (February/March 1969): &yff
"Club Alabam Cafe," California Eagle (December 22, 1933): 13
(October 18, 1935): 4-B
Reed, Black Music History of Los Angeles, p. 183.
"Club Alabam Opens Again," Chicago Defender (November 19, 1932): 5.
Marshal Royal, JOHP, pp. 33-34
Lawrence Brown, JOHP on Los Angeles in the 1920s
Nancy Miller Elliott, Buck Clayton's Jazz World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983)
Red Callender and Elaine Cohen, Unfinished Dream: The Musical World of Red Callender (New York: Quartet, 1985)
Driggs and Levine, Black Beauty, p. 43.
"Club Alabam Opens Again," Chicago Defender (November 19, 1932): 5.
11
Author's interview with Lee Young (June 16, 1982)
Los Angeles City Directory, 1932, p. 2331
Douglas Henry Daniels, Lester Leaps In: The Life and Times of Lester "Pres" Young (Boston, Beacon Press, 2002), ch. 11.
12
Daniels, Lester Leaps In , ch. 3. Los Angeles City Directory, 1932, p. 2331.
Author's inter- view with Henry "Buster" Smith (August 26, 1982).
13
Leonard Feather, The Encyclopedia of Jazz (New York: Da Capo, 1960)
Lawrence Gushee, "Would You Believe Ferman Mouton?" Storyville 95 (June-July 1981), pp. 164-166
James Lincoln Collier, Louis Arm- strong: An American Genius (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 20-21
Peter Haby, "Oscar 'Papa' Celestin, 1884-1954," Footnote 12 (June-July 1981): 4
Orrin Keepnews and Bill Grauer, Jr., A Pictorial History of Jazz: People and Places from New Orleans to Modern Jazz (New York: Crown Publishers, 1966 ed.), p. 11
Martin Williams, Jazz Masters of New Orleans (New York: Macmillan Co., 1967): 258-259.
Whitney Balliett, Such Sweet Thunder: Forty- Nine Pieces of Jazz (Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1966): 346
14
Lee Young, JOHP interview
author's in- terviews with Irma Young (1981, 1984)
Clarence and Leonard Phillips (1983)
Author's interviews with Irma Young (1981, 1984).
16
Author's interview with Leonard Phillips (1983)
Irma Young (1981, 1984).
Minneapolis City Directory, 1927, p. 948
17
J. Lee Anderson, "Lee and Lester, Part 1," The Mississippi Rag 20 (December 1992): 4
18
Club Alabam Advertisement, "Club Alabam Cafe," California Eagle (December 22, 1933): 13.
19
Los Angeles City Directory, 1934, p. 1839
Los Angeles City Directory., 1935, p. 2617
author's interviews with Lucille (December 28, 1982)
Alvin (February 19, 1983)
James (June 12, 1982)
Tolbert, and Martha Young (February 15, 1982)
20
Driggs and Levine, Black Beauty, 191
21
Los Angeles City Directory, 1935, p. 1517.
23
Lawrence Douglas Harris interview (June 6, 1961), William Ransom Hogan Jazz Archive, Tulane University, New Orleans
Amos White, in his Tulane inter- view (August 23, 1958, p. 5)
27
Lee Young, JOHP interview, Reel 5, pp. 3-4.
29
The Southern California Music Building was located at 808 South Broadway, Los Angeles City Directory, 1935, p. 1637.
34
Dale Smook, "Rodney Richardson Interview, Pt. 1," Cadence 15 (November 1989): 16-17.
36
Buck Clayton, Buck Clayton's Jazz World, p.79.
37
Ted Gioia, West Coast Jazz: Modern Jazz in California, 1945-1960 (New York: Oxford University, 1992), 8.
38
Floyd Levin, Classic Jazz: A Personal View of the Music and the Musicians (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 246- 248, 251-254
Austin M. Sonnier, Jr., Willie Geary "Bunk" Johnson: The New Iberia Years (New York: Crescendo, 1977)
Mutt Carey, Kid Ory, and Bunk Johnson in 1943 in San Francisco, Black Beauty, 196.
39
Lucinda W. Pennington and William K. Baxter, A Past to Remember: The History of Culver City (Culver City: City of Culver City, 1976).
Marshal Royal, JOHP Reel 3, p. 14
"Sebastian's Cotton Club Changes Name; Drops Colored Band, Chorus," California Eagle (July 2, 1937): 4B .
40
"Cab Calloway Arrives for Appearance," California Eagle (October 25, 1935): 5B.
David Meeker, Jazz in the Movies: A Guide to Jazz Musicians, 1917-1977 (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1979), # 297.
He was probably in Los Angeles to make his 1935 movie short, "Cab Calloway's Jitterbug Party," ibid., #298.
41
California Eagle (October 25, 1935): 5B.
42
Fay M. Jackson,"Clarence Muse leads Movie Contingent in Spectacle of Beauty," California Eagle (September 9, 1937): 1.
"Thousands Parade Here," Los Angeles Times (September 9, 1937): part I, pp. 7 and 26
43
California Eagle (September 9, 1937): iB.
45
Freddy Doyle, "Musicians and Orchestras," California Eagle (October 9, 1936): 10.
46
Cab Calloway and Bryant Rollins, Of Minnie the Moocher and Me (New York: T. Y. Crowell Co., 1976)
Earl Conrad (ed.), Dan Burley's Handbook of Harlem Jive', A Dictionary of the Colorful Language that Has Emerged from America's Own Music (New York: Dan Burley, 1944)
Douglas Henry Daniels, "Lester Young: Master of Jive," American Music 3 (Autumn 1985): 313-328.
California Eagle (July 31, 1936): 10
(January 29, 1937): 10.
47
Chris Sheridan, Count Basie: A Bio- Discography (New York: Greenwood Press, 1986): 23, 28
spring of 1937, Roberts left the Basie band because he wanted to return to California, but he rejoined it in 1942, pp. 29,154
Albert McCarthy, "Basie's Other Tenor: The Herschel Evans Story," Jazz and Blues 1 (September/October 1971): 8-10.
Count Basie (as told to Albert Murray), Good Morning Blues: The Autobiography of Count Basie (NewYork: Random House, 1980).
48
Clayton, Buck Clayton's Jazz World , 30-65.
49
Ibid., p. 81.
50
"The Granz Stand," Metronome 69 (November 1953), pp. 21-22.
51
Freddy Doyle, "Swingtime in Hollywood," California Eagle (January 8, 1942): 2B.
52
Lee Young, JOHP, Reel 4, pp. 6-7.
53
Valerie Wilmer (as told to), "The Lee Young Story," Jazz Journal 13 (August 1960): 5
Freddy Doyle, "Orchestras and Musicians," California Eagle (February 3, 1938): 10A
"Lee Young in Studios," Down Beat 23 (May 20, 1946): 6.
"Jazz at the Philharmonic/ Bird and Pres: The '46 Concerts" (Verve VE2-2516).
54
Lawrence Brown, JOHP Reel 2, p. 14
Reel 3, p. 6.
Arthur Knight, "Jammin' the Blues, or the Sight of Jazz, 1944," Krin Gabbard (ed.), Representing Jazz (Durham, NC: Duke University, 1995): 11-69.
55
Leonard G. Feather, "Jammin' the Blues," Metronome (April 1945): 14
"On Coast, You Hop Before You Jump," Metronome (March 1945): 8, 31.
Author's inter- view with Barney Kessel October 25, 1983.
56
James McFarline Ervin, "The Participation of the Negro in the Community Life of Los Angeles" (Master's thesis, University of Southern California, 1931), p. 19
Robin D. G. Kelley, Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class (New York: The Free Press, 1994):161-182.
Douglas Henry Daniels, "Los Angeles Zoot: 'Race Riot,' the Pachuco, and Black Music Culture," The Journal of Negro History 82 (Spring): 201-220
Gerald Home, Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1995).
57
Lawrence Brown, JOHP Reel 5, p. 10
Reel 3, p. 10.
58
Shanta Nurullah, "Vi Redd: Interview," Cadence 3 No. 3 (January 1978): 3
Los Angeles City Directory, 1937, p. 921
59
Buddy Collette oral history interview, Cen- tral Avenue Sounds, Special Collections, UCLA Research Library, I, pp. 48ff, 51, 56, 75.
60
Marshal Royal, JOHP
Phillip Atteberry, "Marshal Royal: The Virtual Leader," Coda Magazine 263 (September/October 1995): 33-35.
61
Buddy Collette, I, p. 27.
1
Joe Turner, "Blues on Central Avenue," in Steven Isobardi, "Central Avenue: Where the Jive Was on the Slide," liner notes, Central Avenue Sounds: Jazz in Los Angeles (1921-1956) (Los Angeles: Rhino Records, 1999).
2
Clora Bryant, Buddy Collette, William Green, Steven Isobardi, Jack Kelson, Horace Tapscott, Gerald Wilson, and Marl Young, eds., Central Avenue Sounds: Jazz in Los Angeles (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 20.
3
Clora Bryant et al., Central Avenue Sounds, 31
1
"What's Going On—California and the Viet- nam Era," Oakland Museum of California http://www.museumca.org/exhibit/exhi_ whats_going_on.html
2
Lindy G. Poling, The Real World: Community Speakers in the Classroom. Middle Level Learning. National Council for the Social Studies. May/June 2000, 8:8-10.
The Viet- nam Veterans Memorial Fund, Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership Through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era (1999): is available at www.teachvietnam.org.
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