Notes

Notes
1
Douglas Monroy, "The Creation and Re-creation of Californio Society," in Contested Eden: California before the Gold Rush, ed. Ramón A. Gutiérrez and Richard J. Orsi (Berkeley: University of CaHfornia Press, 1998), 175-76
Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: W. W. Norton, 1987), 254-57.
Lisbeth Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769-1936 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 13-44,171-74
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Californians, 1846-1890 (1966; reprint, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), xiii.
2
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, vol. 6, 1848-1859 (1888; reprint, Santa Barbara, Calif: Wallace Hebberd, 1970), 251-57.
Bancroft, "Personal Observations during a Tour through the Line of Missions of Upper California," in Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 172.
Gertrude Atherton, Cali- fornia (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1914), 15.
3
Monroy, "Creation and Re-creation of Californio Society," 174-76
Albert L. Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Fron- tier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), 72-85.
4
Bancroft, History of California, vol. 6, 256.
5
Lim- erick, Legacy of Conquest
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California
Douglas Monroy, Thrown among Strangers: The Mak- ing of Mexican Culture in Frontier California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990)
Quintard Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1998)
Albert Broussard, African-American Odyssey: The Stewarts, 1853-1963 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998)
Sucheng Chan, Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991)
Sucheng Chan, Doug- las Henry Daniels, Mario T. Garcia, and Terry P. Wilson, eds., Peoples of Color in the Amer- ican West (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1994)
Elizabeth Jameson and Susan Armitage, eds., Writing the Range: Race, Class, and Culture in the Womens West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997)
Gutiérrez and Orsi, Contested Eden
Malcolm J. Rohrbough, Days of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the American Nation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
Robert F. Heizer and Alan F. Almquist, The Other Californians: Prejudice and Discrimination under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971)
Pitt, Decline of the Californios.
6
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 18-19
Pitt Decline of the Californios, 14-15, 309
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 174-75.
7
James A. Sandos, "Between Crucifix and Lance: Indian-White Relations in California, 1769-1848," in Gutiérrez and Orsi, Contested Eden, 196-98.
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 15-16.
8
Limerick, Legacy of Conquest, 256-57
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in Cali- fornia, 26-29
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 23-26
Heizer and Alm- quist, The Other Californians, 4-10
James J. Rawls and Walton Bean, California: An Inter- pretive History, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 34-39
Sandos, "Between Crucifix and Lance," 204-205.
9
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identity in California, 2,13-44
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 23.
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identity in California, 16-18
Sandos, "Between Crucifix and Lance," 206-207.
Bruce W. Miller, "Chumash Village Life and Social Organization," in Chan et al., Peoples of Color in the American West, 221-23.
10
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpretive History, 38.
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 197-98.
Mon- roy, Thrown among Strangers, 51-80.
11
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 1.
12
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 17-22
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 123-29 (Narciso Duran quote, 127)
Monroy, "Creation and Re-creation of Californio Society," 186-88, 191
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 32-37
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 163-65.
13
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers," 165-69
Pitt, Decline of the Californios, 15-18
Richard Henry Dana, Jr., Two Years before the Mast
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 166
Alfred Robinson, Life in California
Pitt, Decline of the Californios, 15.
14
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpretive History, 69-80.
Monroy, "Creation and Re-creation of Californio Society," 186.
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 173-80.
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 72-85.
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpretive History, 96-97.
15
Almquist and Heizer, The Other Californians, 96-100.
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 204
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 56-58.
16
Rohrbough, Days of Gold, 10
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 92
Rick Moss, "Not Quite Paradise: The Development of the African American Community in Los Angeles through 1950," California History 75 (Fall 1996): 25-26
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 199-201.
17
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpretive History, 97, 99
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 97, 116-17
Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities, 168-74.
Walter Johnson, "The Slave Trader, the White Slave, and the Pol- itics of Racial Determination in the 1850s," in The Journal of American History 87 (June 2000): 13-38.
18
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 94 (Declaration of Rights quote), 96, 105-106 (Wozencraft quote), 115-19
Kenneth G. Goode, Californias Black Pioneers: A Brief Historical Survey (Santa Barbara, Calif: McNally and Loftin Publishers, 1973), 44-54.
Odell A. Thurman, The Negro in California before 1890 (M.A. thesis, College of the Pacific, 1945; reprint, San Francisco: R and E Re- search Associates, 1973), 29-32
Larry George Murphy, "Equality before the Law: The Strug- gle of Nineteenth-Century Black Californians for Social and Political Justice" (Ph.D. diss., Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, 1973), 35-45
James Adolphus Fisher, "A History of the Political and Social Development of the Black Community in California, 1850-1950" (Ph.D. diss., State University of New York, Stony Brook, 1971), 14-19.
19
Malcolm Edwards, "The War of Complexional Distinction: Blacks in Gold Rush California and British Columbia," California Historical Quarterly 56 (Spring 1977): 36.
Rudolph M. Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California (New Haven: Yale Uni- versity Press, 1977), 191-93
Moss, "Not Quite Paradise," 225
Goode, California's Black Pio- neers, 75
Thurman, Negro in California, 44
Jack D. Forbes, Afro-Americans in the Far West: A Handbook for Educators (Berkeley: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and De- velopment, 1969), 23-24
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 81-82
Susan Bragg, "Knowl- edge Is Power: Sacramento Blacks and the Public Schools, 1854-1860," California History 75 (Fall 1996): 215-21.
20
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 104-24.
21
Roger Daniels, Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988), 34
Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier, 129-36, 140-48.
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 76-90
22
San Francisco Californian, May 29, 1848
Rawls and Bean, California: An In- terpretive History, 85.
23
Bancroft, History of California, vol. 6, 221-25.
Rohrbough, Days of Gold, 220-29.
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California, 49.
Allyn Campbell Loosley, "Foreign Born Population of California, 1848-1920" (master's thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1927; reprint, San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1971), 2,4,7,33
Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer, The Anti-Chinese Movement in California (1939; Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 12-13 (in 1973 edition).
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 120-21, 144
Liza Ketchum, The Gold Rush (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1996), 96.
24
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 121,141-45.
Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (Boston: Little, Brown, 1989), 82
Carlos U. Lopez, "The Chilenos in the Cali- fornia Gold Rush," The Californians 6 (March-April 1988): 29, 32-33
Ketchum, Gold Rush, 96
Martin Ridge, "Disorder, Crime, and Punishment in the California Gold Rush," Mon- tana, the Magazine of Western History (Autumn 1999): 20-22
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpretive History, 120-21, 126
Rohrbough, Days of Gold, 28.
25
Goode, California's Black Pioneers, 75
Thurman, Negro in California, 44.
Bragg, "Knowledge Is Power," 215-21.
26
Thurman, Negro in California, 25
Rohrbough, Days of Gold, 211-15
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California, 21-22, 64-65, 75
Murphy, "Equality before the Law," 35-45
Fisher, "The Political Development of the Black Community," 14-19.
27
Almquist and Heizer, The Other Californians, 122-23.
28
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpretive History, 132-33
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 72 (Judge Hayes quoted on 78, 79-80, 90)
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush Cali- fornia, 120-21
Judith Freeman, "Commemorating an L.A. Pioneer," Angeles, April 1990, 58-60
Goode, Californias Black Pioneers, 90-91.
29
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California, 147-52
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Cali- fornians, 121-28.
30
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California, 239-54
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Cali- fornians, 160-77.
Herbert Patrick LePore, "Exclusion by Prejudice: Anti-Japanese Discrimination in California and the Immigration Act of 1924" (Ph.D. diss., Brigham Young University, 1973), 14-28.
31
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore, 80-82, 113
Rawls and Bean, California: An In- terpretive History, 126-27
Sandmeyer, Anti-Chinese Movement in California, 40-56
LePore, "Exclusion by Prejudice," 23-24.
32
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore, 82, 113
Rawls and Bean, An Interpretive His- tory, 126-27
Sandmeyer, Anti-Chinese Movement in California, 40-56
LePore, "Exclusion by Prejudice," 23-24
Daniels, Asian America, 33-39.
33
Russell M. Posner, "The Lord and the Drayman: James Bryce vs. Denis Kearney," in Neither Separate nor Equal: Race and Racism in California, ed. Roger Olmstead and Charles WoUenberg (San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1971), 57, 58-59
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore, 115-16.
34
Daniels, Asian America, 34
David L. Snyder, Negro Civil Rights in California: 1850 (Sacramento: Sacramento Book CoUectors Club, 1969), 1.
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 47.
35
Goode, Californias Black Pioneers, 77
Almquist and Heizer, The Other Californians, 128-33
Daniels, Asian America, 34-35.
36
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore, 114.
37
The Elevator, November 1, 1867, August 16, 1867
Lai Chun-Chuen, "Remarks of the Chinese Merchants of San Francisco," in Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore, 112-13.
38
Bragg, "Knowledge Is Power," 215-16
Almquist and Heizer, The Other Californians, 133-34, 175-76
Sandmeyer, Anti-Chinese Movement in Cali- fornia, 50.
Daniels, Asian America, 36
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 215-16.
39
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 134, 176
Goode, Californias Black Pi- oneers, 84-85
Clarence Caesar, "The Historical Demographics of Sacramento's Black Com- munity, 1848-1900," California History 75 (Fall 1996): 206
Sandmeyer, Anti-Chinese Move- ment in California, 50.
40
Goode, Californias Black Pioneers, 74-75
Forbes, Afro-Americans in the Far West, 28
Caesar, "Historical Demographics of Sacramento's Black Community," 202
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 90-92
Rawls and Bean, California: An Interpretive History, 132.
41
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 91
Caesar, "Historical Demographics of Sacra- mento's Black Community," 202, 204.
42
Thurman, Negro in California, 43-44.
43
Caesar, "Historic Demographics of Sacramento's Black Community," 202
Forbes, Afro-Americans in the Far West, 28
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 91-94
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California, 91, 203, 209.
44
Goode, Californias Black Pioneers, 77
Forbes, Afro-Americans in the Far West, 27-28
Heizer and Almquist, The Other Californians, 76-85, 124-26, 134-37
Hurtado, Indian Sur- vival on the California Frontier, 198.
45
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 93, see esp. 331, note 27
Goode, Californias Black Pioneers, 87-88
William Loren Katz, The Black West: A Pictorial History (Seattle: Open Hand Publishing, 1987), 139
Susheel Bibbs, "Chautauqua Enactment of the Life of Mary Ellen Pleasant," unpublished time line and biographical sketch.
Fisher, "Political Develop- ment of the Black Community," 39.
46
Caesar, "Historical Demographics of Sacramento's Black Community," 209
Rawls and Bean, An Interpretive History, 177
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore, 114
Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier, 94.
47
Daniels, Asian America, 36
Caesar, "Historical Demographics" of Sacramento's Black Community," 209
Rawls and Bean, An Interpretive History, 177
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore, 114
Fisher, "Political Development of the Black Community in California," 39.
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