Notes

Notes
Gordon Morris Bakken, "California's Constitutional Conventions Create Our Courts," California Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook (1994), 33-54.
1
Christian G. Fritz, "Popular Sovereignty, Vigilantism, and the Constitutional Right of Revolution," Pacific Historical Review 58 (February 1994): 39-66.
J. Ross Browne, Report of the Debates in the Convention of California of the Formation of the State Constitution in September and October, 1849 (Washington, D.C., 1850), 50-51.
2
Fritz, "Popular Sovereignty," 45-46.
3
Ibid., 46.
4
Gordon Morris Bakken, Practicing Law in Frontier California (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991), 101.
5
Gordon Morris Bakken, "Death for Grand Larceny," in Historic U.S. Court Cases, 1690-1990: An Encyclopedia, ed. John W. Johnson (New York, 1992), 34-35.
6
Ibid., 92-93.
7
Ibid., 108.
8
Ibid., 115.
9
Ibid.
10
Ibid., 117.
11
Ibid., 125.
12
Ibid., 215.
13
Ibid., 226.
14
Ibid., 227.
15
Ibid., 228 (Noriego).
16
Ibid., 229.
17
Ibid., 231.
18
Ibid., 234.
19
Ibid.
20
Ibid., 235.
21
Ibid.
22
Ibid., 237.
23
Ibid., 239.
24
Cardinal Goodwin, The Establishment of State Government in California, 1846-1850 (New York: Macmillan, 1914)
Lately Thomas, Between Two Empires: The Life Story of Cali- fornia's First Senator, William McKendree Gwin (Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1969)
Walter Colton, Land of Gold; or, Three Years in California (New York: Cleaves, MacDonald & Co., 1850), 410-11
Rockwell Dennis Hunt, The Genesis of California's First Constitu- tion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1895).
David Alan Johnson, Founding the Far West: California, Oregon, and Nevada, 1840-1890 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 15-40, 101-38, 233-68.
25
Gordon Morris Bakken, Rocky Mountain Constitution Making, 1850-1912 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987), 8-9.
26
Nathaniel Bennett, Reports of Cases Deter- mined in the Supreme Court of the State of California (San Francisco: Bancroft-Whitney Co., 1906), vi-vii.
27
Orrin Kip McMurray, Historical and Contemporary Review of the Bench and Bar of California (San Francisco: The Recorder Printing and Publishing Co., 1926), 24.
28
Gordon M. Bakken, "Constitutional Convention Debates in the West: Racism, Re- ligion, and Gender," Western Legal History 3 (Summer-Fall 1990): 228-39.
Rogers M. Smith, Civic Ideals (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 138, 198-99, 206, 210-15.
29
Clifford E. Trafzer and Joel R. Hyer, "Exterminate Them": Written Accounts of the Murder, Rape, and Slavery of Native Americans during the California Gold Rush, 1848-1868 (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1999), 19-20.
30
Ibid., 81-133.
John Phillip Reid, Policing the Elephant: Crime, Punishment, and Social Behavior on the Overland Trail (San Marino, Calif.: The Huntington Library Press, 1997).
Linda K. Kerber, No Constitutional Right to be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (New York: Hill and Wang, 1998), 47-67.
31
Albert S. Broussard, Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900-1954 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993), 17.
Charles J. Mc- Clain, In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Cen- tury California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 20-23.
Act of March 18, 1863, chapter 70, 1863 Cal. Stat. 69.
Tomas Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Histor- ical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
32
McClain, In Search of Equality, 20-21.
33
Gerald F. Uelmen, "The Know Nothing Justices on the California Supreme Court" Western Legal History 2 (Winter—Spring 1989): 89-106.
34
Nason McBroome, Parallel Communities: African Americans in California's East Bay, 1850-1963 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1993), 20.
Frank Ball, the publisher of The Sluice Box, a handwritten newspaper of Orleans, California, wrote on October 6, 1856
The Sluice Box, MSS, Huntington Library.
35
Horace Bell, Reminiscences of a Ranger; or, Early Times in Southern California, 2d ed. (Santa Barbara, Calif.: Wallace Hebberd, 1927), 236-37.
People v. Dave Brown and Charles Saville, Court of Sessions, January 18, 1851
People v. Dave Brown, January 24, 1852, Records in Los Angeles County Courts col- lection, Seaver Center for Western History Research, Natural History Museum of Los An- geles County.
Paul R. Spitzzeri, "Trembling on the Brink: Criminal Justice Administration in Los Angeles County, 1850-1865" (unpublished paper, California State University, Fuller- ton 1999), 34-38.
Robert W. Blew, "Vigilantism in Los Angeles, 1835-1874," His- torical Society of Southern California Quarterly 54 (Spring 1972): 11-30
Ronald C. Woolsey, Migrants West: Toward the Southern California Frontier (Sebastopol, Calif.: Grizzly Bear Pub- lishing Co., 1996).
John Joseph Stan- ley, "Burning Baghdad by the Bay: Fire and Arson in Early California," in Law in the West- ern United States, ed. Gordon Morris Bakken (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000), 104-13.
36
Bakken, Practicing Law in Frontier California, 100.
37
Paul Kens, Justice Stephen Field: Shaping Liberty from the Gold Rush to the Gilded Age (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997).
38
Bakken, Practicing Law in Frontier California, 2.
39
Ibid., 19.
40
Ibid., 34-36.
41
Ibid., 37.
42
Ibid., 4-5.
43
Donna C. Schuele, "Community Property Law and the Politics of Married Women's Rights in Nineteenth-Century California," Western Legal History 7 (Summer—Fall 1994): 249.
44
Ibid., 249-50.
45
Ibid., 259-60.
David J. Langum, Law and Community on the Mexican Cali- fornia Frontier (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987).
46
Dentzel v. Waldie, 30 Cal. 138, 144 (1866).
47
Simpers and Craumer v. Sloan and Sloan, 5 Cal. 457 (1855).
Pfeiffer and Wife v. Riehn and Scannell, 13 Cal. 643 (1859).
48
Ramsdell v. Fuller and Summers, 28 Cal. 37, 43 (1865).
49
Gordon Morris Bakken, The Development of Law in Frontier California: Civil Law and Society, 1850-1890 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985), 41-72.
50
Hoen v. Simmons, 1 Cal. 119 (1850).
51
Tewksbury v. Laffan, 1 Cal. 129 (1850).
52
Salmon v. Hoffman, 2 Cal. 138, 143 (1852).
53
Gordon Morris Bakken, "Law and Legal Tender in California and the West," South- ern California Quarterly 62 (Fall 1980): 239-59.
54
Gordon Morris Bakken, "The Development of the Law of Tort in Frontier Cali- fornia, 1850-1890," Southern California Quarterly 60 (Winter 1978): 405-19.
55
Ibid., 75.
56
Ibid.
57
Ibid., 75-76.
58
Glenda Riley makes such a connection in A Place to Grow: Women in the American West (Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1992), 65, 151.
Arien Mack, A Place in the World (New York: New York University Press, 1993)
Beatriz Colomina, Sexuality and Space (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1992).
Mark Wigley, "Untided: The Hous- ing of Gender," in the 1990 symposium reproduced in this book is particularly on point.
59
Bakken, Development of Law in Frontier California, 92-93.
60
Ibid., 93-101.
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