Notes

Notes
1
James A. Sandos, "'Because he is a liar and a thief': Conquer- ing the Residents of 'Old' California, 1850-1880," in Rooted in Barbarous Soil: People, Culture, and Community in Gold Rush California, ed. Kevin Starr and Richard J. Orsi (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 2000), 86-112
Sandos, "Between Crucifix and Lance: Indian- White Relations in California, 1769-1848," in Contested Eden: California before the Gold Rush, ed. Ramón A. Gutiérrez and Richard J. Orsi (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 216-20.
Sherburne F. Cook, The Population of the California Indians, 1769-1970 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976)
Cook, The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civi- lization (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1943)
Cook, "The American Invasion, 1848-1870" Ibero-Americana no. 23 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1943)
George Harwood Phillips, Chiefs and Challengers (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975)
Phillips, Indians and Intruders in Central California, 1769-1849 (Norman: University of Ok- lahoma Press, 1993)
Phillips, Indians and Indian Agents: The Origins of the Reservation Sys- tem in California, 1849-1852 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997)
George E. An- derson, W. H. Ellison, and Robert F. Heizer, Treaty Making and Treaty Rejection by the Federal Government in California, 1850-1852 (Socorro, N.M.: Ballena Press, 1978)
James J. Rawls, Indians of California: The Changing Image (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984).
Roger D. McGrath in Gunfighters, Highwaymen, & Vigilantes: Violence on the Frontier (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1984)
Richard Dillon in Burnt-Out Fires (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973).
William Jackson Barry, Up and Down; or, Fifty Years' Colonial Experience in Australia, California, New Zealand, India, China, and the South Pacific (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, and Riving- ton, 1879)
E. Gould Buffum, The Gold Rush: An Account of Six Months in the California Diggings ([London?] 1850)
Lucius Fairchild, California Letters of Lucius Fairchild, ed. Joseph Schafer (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1931)
Jasper S. Hill, The Letters of a Young Miner: Covering the Adventures of Jasper S. Hill during the California Goldrush, 1849- 1852, ed. Doyce B. Nunis, Jr. (San Francisco: John Howell, 1964)
William Perkins, Three Years in California: William Perkins' Journal of Life at Sonora, 1849-1852, ed. Dale L. Morgan and James R. Scobie (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964)
Daniel B. Woods, Sixteen Months at the Gold Diggings (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1851).
2
John Rollin Ridge, The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta, the Celebrated California Bandit (1854; reprint, with an introduction by Joseph Henry Jackson, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955).
3
Walter Noble Burns, The Robin Hood of El Dorado (New York: Coward McCann, 1932)
Joseph Henry Jackson, Bad Company (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1949).
Pedro Castillo and Albert Camarillo, eds., Fu- ria y Muerta: Los Bandidos Chicanos (Los Angeles: UCLA Chicano Studies Center, 1973).
4
William B. Se- crest, Joaquin: Bloody Bandit of the Mother Lode (Fresno, Calif.: Saga West Pub. Co., 1967)
James F. Varley, The Legend of Joaquin Murrieta, California's Gold Rush Bandit (Twin Falls, Idaho: Big Lost River Press, 1995)
Remi Nadeau, The Real Joaquin Murieta (Corona del Mar, Calif.: Trans-Anglo Books, 1974).
John Boessenecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999), 73-99.
Frank Latt, Joaquin Murrieta and His Horse Gangs (Santa Cruz, Calif.: Bear State Books, 1980).
5
Myron Angel, History of San Luis Obispo County, California (Oakland: Thompson & West, 1883), esp. 131, 133, 167-68, 294-96, 299-306, 356
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, vol. 4 (San Francisco: The History Company, 1888), esp. 655-56
Bancroft, Popular Tribunals, vol. 1 (San Francisco: The History Co., 1887), esp. 487
Boessenecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 100-133
Robert Glass Cleland, The Cattle on a Thousand Hills: Southern California, 1850-1880 (San Marino, Calif.: The Huntington Library, 1951), esp. 92-93, 96, 250-63
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966), esp. 149, 169-71
Jesse D. Mason, History of Santa Barbara County, California (Oakland: Thompson & West, 1883), esp. 104
W. W. Robinson, The Story of San Luis Obispo County (San Luis Obispo, Calif.: Tide Insurance and Trust Co., 1957), esp. 20
Dudley T. Ross, Devil on Horseback (Fresno, Calif.: Valley Publishers, 1975), esp. 108-28, 165-68.
Alta California (San Francisco)
William B. Secrest, Lawmen & Desperadoes: A Compendium of Noted Early California Peace Officers, Badmen, and Outlaws, 1850-1900 (Spokane: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1994), 268-73.
6
Kevin J. Mullen, Let Justice Be Done: Crime and Politics in Early San Francisco (Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1989), 55-71.
7
Edwin A. Beilharz and Carlos U. Lopez, eds., We Were 49ers! Chilean Accounts of the California Gold Rush (Pasadena, Calif.: Ward Ritchie Press, 1976), 31.
8
Secrest, Lawmen & Desperadoes, 318
Pitt, Decline of the Californios, 60-62
M. Colette Standart, "The Sonora Migration to California, 1848-1856: A Study in Prejudice," Southern California Quarterly (Fall 1976): 335-38, 342
Carol M. DeFerrari, ed., Annals of Tuolumne County (Sonora, Calif.: The Mother Lode Press, 1963), 133, 138.
9
Beilharz and Lopez, We Were 49ers! 104, 123, 127, 139-49
Boessenecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 47-51
James J. Ayers, Gold and Sunshine: Reminiscences of Early California (Bos- ton: The Gorham Press, 1922), 46-58.
10
John Boessenecker, in Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 51
11
Benjamin C. Truman, The Field of Honor (New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert, 1883)
William B. Secrest, Blood and Honor (Fresno, Calif.: Saga West Publish- ing Co., 1970)
Robert Baldick, The Duel: A History (New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1996).
Boesse- necker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 204-24.
12
San Francisco Post, September 7, 1878
Truman, Field of Honor, 315
Hubert Howe Bancroft, California Inter Pocula (San Francisco: The History Company, 1888), 754-55
Boes- senecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 209-13.
13
Alta California, June 7 and 8, 1854
Bancroft, California Inter Pocula, 760
Boessenecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 215-16.
14
Mullen, Let Justice Be Done, 17, 40, 42, 49, 66, 70.
15
San Francisco Examiner, February 13 and 20, 1881
Truman, Field of Honor, 308-13
George C. Barns, Denver the Man (Wilmington, Ohio: The Author, 1949)
Boessenecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 213-14.
16
David A. Williams, David C. Broderick: A Political Portrait (San Marino, Calif.: The Huntington Library, 1969)
A. Russell Buchanan, David S. Terry of California: Dueling Judge (San Marino, Calif.: The Hun- tington Library, 1956).
Truman, Field of Honor, 81-82, 392-410
Bancroft, California Inter Pocula, 763-73
Boessenecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 219-23.
17
Samuel L. Clemens, Roughing It (New York: Harper & Row, 1913), 197.
18
Stephen J. Field, Personal Reminiscences of Early Days in California (privately pub- lished, 1893), 79-80
Boessenecker, Gold Dust and Gunsmoke, 302.
19
Mariposa Chronicle, April 21, 1854
San Francisco Chronicle, May 1, 1892
Myron Angel, History of Nevada (Oakland: Thompson & West, 1881), 344
Sally S. Zanjani, "Sam Brown: The Evolution of a Frontier Villain," Pacific Historian (Winter 1985): 6-10
John Boessenecker, Badge and Buckshot (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988), 61-65.
20
McGrath, Gunfighters, Highwaymen, & Vigilantes, 86-101.
21
Secrest, Lawmen & Desperadoes, 241-45
William B. Secrest, "There Once Was a Badman Named Mulligan," Real West (August 1984): 14-15, 161.
22
Hubert Howe Bancroft, Popular Tribunals (San Francisco: History Publishing Co., 1887)
Richard Maxwell Brown, Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Vi- olence and Vigilantism (New York Oxford University Press, 1975).
23
Esmeralda Union, March 31, 1864.
24
Mullen, Let Justice Be Done.
Mary Floyd Williams, History of the San Francisco Commit- tee of Vigilance of 1851 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1921)
Williams, ed., Pa- pers of the San Francisco Vigilance Committee of 1851 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1919).
Let Justice Be Done, 110, 144, 203, 216, 230.
25
note 22
John Hittell, The History of San Francisco and Incidentally of California (San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft and Co., 1878)
Roger W. Lotchin, San Francisco, 1846-1856: From Hamlet to City (New York: Oxford Uni- versity Press, 1974)
Robert M. Senkewicz, Vigilantes in Gold Rush San Francisco (Stan- ford: Stanford University Press, 1985), especially his historiographical analysis on pages 203-31.
Doyce B. Nunis, Jr., ed., The San Francisco Vig- ilance Committee of 1856: Three Views (Los Angeles: Westerners, 1971).
26
Kenneth Lamott, Chronicles of San Quentin: The Biography of a Prison (New York: David McKay Co., 1961)
Shelley Bookspan, A Germ of Goodness: The California State Prison System 1851-1944 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991).
27
McGrath, Gunfighters, Highwaymen, & Vigilantes, esp. 247-60
Ben Nickoll, "Vio- lence on the American Frontier: Nevada County, California, 1851-56" (history honors thesis, UCLA, 1986)
McGrath, "Violence and Lawlessness on the Western Frontier," in Violence in America: The History of Crime, vol. 1 (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1989), 122-45.
28
Richard Dillon, Wells, Fargo Detective: A Biography of James B. Hume (Reno: Univer- sity of Nevada Press, 1986)
Jackson, Bad Company
William Collins and Bruce Levene, Black Bart: The True Story of the West's Most Famous Stagecoach Robber (Mendocino, Calif.: Pacific Transcriptions, 1992)
John Boessenecker, Lawman: The Life and Times of Harry Morse, 1835-1912 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998).
29
Boessenecker, Badge and Buckshot, 101-29
An Illustrated History of San Joaquin County (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1890), 95-100, 617
Secrest, Lawmen & Desperadoes, 101- 105
George Henry Tinkham, History of San Joaquin County, California (Los Angeles: His- toric Record Co., 1923), 218, 289-90.
30
Mullen, Let Justice Be Done, 77.
David R. Johnson, Policing the Urban Underworld (Philadel- phia: Temple University Press, 1979).
31
Kevin J. Mullen, "Malachi Fallon," California History (Summer 1983), 100-105
Mul- len, Let Justice Be Done, 77, 81, 105, 126, 133, 145, 165, 205, 250.
32
"Further Reminiscences of Pioneer Days: Malachi Fallon as Chief," Alta California, October 26, 1884.
33
Mullen, "Malachi Fallon," 100
Oakland Tribune, April 2, 1961.
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