Notes

Notes
1
California Constitution, article 11, section 14 (1849).
2
William Q. deFuniak, Principles of Community Property, vol. 1 (Chicago, 1943).
Carole Shammas, Marylynn Salmon, and Michael Dahlin, Inheritance in America from Colonial Times to the Present (New Brunswick, N.J., 1987)
Helen S. Carter, "Legal As- pects of Widowhood and Aging," in On Their Own: Widows and Widowhood in the Ameri- can Southwest, 1848-1939, ed. Arlene Scadron (Chicago, 1988), 271-300.
3
Marylynn Salmon, Women and the Law in Early Amer- ica (Chapel Hill, 1986)
Norma Basch, In the Eyes of the Law: Women, Marriage, and Property in Nineteenth-Century New York (Ithaca, 1982), esp. ch. 2
Joan Hoff, Law, Gender, and Injus- tice: A Legal History of U.S. Women (New York, 1991), esp. pp. 82-90,106-16.
4
Richard Chused, "Married Women's Property Law: 1800-1850," Georgetown Law Journal71 (1983): 1359-1425
Hoff, Law, Gender, and Injustice, 121-24,127-35,187-91
Basch, In the Eyes of the Law, esp. chs. 5 and 6.
Barbara Welter, "The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-186o," American Quarterly 18 (1966): 151-74.
5
Peggy Rabkin, "The Origins of Law Reform: The Social Significance of the Nineteenth-Century Codification Movement and Its Contribution to the Passage of the Early Married Women's Property Acts," Buffalo Law Review 24 (1974): 683-760.
James W. Paulsen, "Community Property and the Early American Women's Rights Movement: The Texas Connection," Idaho Law Review 32 (1996): 660-67.
6
J. Ross Browne, Report of the Debates in the Con- vention of California, on the Formation of the State Constitution, in September and October, 1849 (Washington, D.C, 1850), 257-69.
Donna C. Schuele, "Community Property Law and the Politics of Married Women's Property Rights in Nineteenth-Century California," Western Legal History 7 (1994): 248-60
Susan Westerberg Prager, "The Persistence of Separate Property Concepts in California's Community Property System, 1849-1975," UCLA Law Review 24 (1976): 8-24
Donald E. Hargis, "Women's Rights: California, 1849," Southern California Quarterly 37 (1955): 320-34
Ray August, "The Spread of Community Property Law to the Far West," Western Legal History 3 (1990): 35-66.
7
Paulsen, "Community Property,"
Donna C. Schuele, "'A Robbery to the Wife': Culture, Gender, and Marital Property in California Law and Politics, 1850-1890" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1999), 42-44.
8
Browne, Debates, 258, 261.
9
Prager, "Persistence of Separate Property Concepts," 10-11.
10
Browne, Debates, 258.
11
Ibid., 259.
12
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 57-72
Prager, "Persistence of Separate Prop- erty Concepts," 25-34.
13
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 72-100
Prager, "Persistence of Sep- arate Property Concepts," 34-49.
14
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 57-100
Prager, "Persistence of Separate Property Concepts," 25-49.
15
Prager, "Persistence of Separate Property Concepts," 28.
16
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," ch. 3
Roger Levenson, Women in Printing: "Northern California, 1857-1890 (Santa Barbara, 1994), esp. chs. 4-6
Reda Davis, Woman's Re- public: The Life of Marietta Stow, Co-operator (San Francisco, 1969), 201-32.
17
JoAnn Levy, They Saw the Elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush (Norman, Okla., 1992), 92-103.
18
Levenson, Women in Printing, chs. 4 and 5
Robert J. Chandler, "A Woman Printer Battles an All-Male Union," The Californians 4 (1986): 44-47.
19
Ann Braude, Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Womens Rights in Nineteenth-Century America (Boston, 1989), esp. chs. 3-5
Robert J. Chandler, "In the Van: Spiritualists as Catalysts for the California Women's Suffrage Movement," California History 73 (1994): 189-201.
20
Braude, Radical Spirits, 84-98,193-95.
21
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda J. Gage, eds., History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 3 (New York, 1886), 751.
22
Braude, Radical Spirits, 193.
23
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 109-12.
24
Levenson, Women in Printing, ch. 6
Sherilyn Cox Bennion, Equal to the Occasion: Women Editors of the Nineteenth-Century West (Reno, 1990).
25
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 134-61.
26
Stanton, Anthony, and Gage, Woman Suffrage, vol. 3, 751-65.
27
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 326 n. 224.
28
"Petition for Woman's Suffrage. In the Senate, March 2,1870," in Women's Rights Pamphlets, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
State of California, "Report of Special Committee in Relation to Granting Women Political Equality," in Appendix to Journals of the Senate and Assembly, 19th sess., 1871-72, no. 3.
29
"Woman-Suffrage. The Meeting in the Senate Chamber," Pioneer, March 19,1870, at 1 (reprint from the Capital Reporter).
30
"Woman Suffrage Meeting," Sacramento Weekly Union, March 16,1872, at 8.
31
Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920 (New York, 1981), esp. ch. 3.
32
"Plea on Behalf of Woman-Suffrage, before the Assembly Committee, Sacramento, California. March 18,1870," Pioneer, April 2,1870, at 2.
33
Carolyn Jones, "Dollars and Selves: Women's Tax Criticism and Resistance in the 1870s," University of Illinois Law Review (1994): 265-309
Linda K. Kerber,No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies: Women and the Obli- gations of Citizenship (New York, 1998): 81-120.
34
"Woman Suffrage Meeting," at 8.
35
"Report of Special Committee," 5
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 173-74,193-94.
36
"The Education Bill," San Jose Weekly Mercury, February 26,1874, at 2
"Sacramento," San Francisco Chronicle, February 18,1874, at 3.
37
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 208-15.
38
Barbara A. Babcock, "Clara Shortridge Foltz: Constitution Maker," Indiana Law Journal 66 (1991): 879-94
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 259-88.
39
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 296-309,316-21.
40
Senate Journal, February 17,1883, at 211.
41
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 358-59.
Susan Scheiber Edelman, "A Red Hot Suffrage Campaign: The Woman Suffrage Cause in California, 1896," California Supreme Court Society Yearbook 2 (1995), 49-131
Gayle Gul- lett, Becoming Citizens: The Emergence and Development of the California Womens Movement, 1880-1911 (Chicago, 2000), 83-84, 93-106.
42
"Report of Special Committee," 3.
43
Prager, "Persistence of Separate Property Concepts," 34-39
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 77-84.
44
Reva Siegel, "Home as Work: The First Woman's Rights Claims Concerning Wives' Household Labor, 1850-1880," Yale Law Journal 103 (1994): 1073-1217.
45
Schuele, "Community Property Law," 264,271-72.
46
"Address of Mrs. Nettie C. Tator before the Joint Committees of the Senate and Assembly of the State of California on the Subject of Extending the Right of Suffrage to Women, Sacramento, March 13,1872," in Women's Rights Pamphlets, Bancroft Library.
47
Schuele, "In Her Own Way: Marietta Stow's Crusade for Probate Law Reform within the Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Move- ment," Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 7 (1995): 279-306.
48
Marietta L. Stow, Probate Confiscation; or, the Unjust Laws that Govern Women (reprint, New York, 1974), 232-33.
49
"Report of Special Committee," 10.
50
Ibid., 3,5,10.
51
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 193-94.
52
Stow, Probate Confiscation, 13-14.
53
Schuele, "In Her Own Way," 281.
54
Dorothy Regnery, "Pioneering Women: Portraits of Sarah," The Californian (Magazine of the California History Center, De Anza College) 8 (1986): 6-8.
55
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 235-38.
56
Schuele, "Community Property Law," 263-67.
57
Schuele, "In Her Own Way," 285-86.
58
"Petition for Equal Rights," Laura deForce Gordon Collection, Bancroft Library
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 310,316-18
Schuele, "Com- munity Property Law," 276.
59
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 309-11,318,321-22,337-38.
60
Senate Journal, January 26,1885, at 142.
61
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 339-40,343-47.
62
Senate Journal, January 26,1885, at 142-43.
63
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 347-50.
64
Ibid., 194-203, 218-20.
Schuele, "Community Property Law," 270-71.
65
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 177-78,292.
66
"Sacramento," San Francisco Chronicle, March 14,1872, at 1.
67
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 179,216-17.
68
Bradwell v. Illinois, 83 U.S. 130 (1873)
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 242-45.
Virginia Drachman, Sis- ters in Law: Women Lawyers in Modern American History (Cambridge, Mass., 1998).
69
Barbara A. Babcock, "Clara Shortridge Foltz: 'First Woman,'" Arizona Law Review 30 (1988): 613-717
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 242-44.
70
Babcock, "First Woman," 686-94
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 240-41.
71
"A Victory in California," Womans Journal, April 20,1878, at 124.
72
Babcock, "First Woman," 692.
73
Babcock, "Constitution Maker," 894-99
Schuele, "Robbery to the Wife," 292-94.
74
"Address of Mrs. Tator," 12.
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