Notes

Notes
1
Heinrich Schliemann, Schliemann's First Visit to America, 1850-1851 (Cambridge: Har- vard University Press, 1942), 63-65.
2
Mrs. D. B. Bates, Incidents on Land and Water; or, Four Years on the Pacific Coast (Boston: J. French and Co., 1857), 103.
3
Frank Soulé, John H. Gihon, and James Nisbet, The Annals of San Francisco (New York: Appleton & Co., 1855), 329-33.
4
William Taylor, Seven Years Street Preaching in San Francisco, California (New York: Carlton & Porter, 1856), 114.
5
Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915 (New York: Oxford Uni- versity Press, 1973), 69-109.
6
Taylor, Seven Years Street Preaching, 349.
7
Joshua Paddison, ed., A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California before the Gold Rush (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1999).
8
Walt Whitman, "Song of the Redwood-Tree," Leaves of Grass, 1892 ed. (New York: Bantam, 1983), 170.
9
Hinton R. Helper, The Land of Gold: Reality versus Fiction (Baltimore: H. Taylor, 1855), 36-37.
10
Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), 25-53.
11
J. S. Holliday, The World Rushed In: The California Gold Rush Experi- ence (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981), 310-11.
12
Bayard Taylor, Eldorado; or, Adventures in the Path of Empire (New York G. P. Putnam; London: R. Bendey, 1850), 210.
13
Steven M. Avella, "Phelan's Cemetery: Religion in the Urbanizing West, 1850-1869, in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Sacramento," in Rooted in Barbarous Soil: People, Culture, and Community in Gold Rush California, ed. Kevin Starr and Richard J. Orsi (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 250-79
Sandra Sizer Frankiel, Californias Spiritual Frontiers: Religious Alternatives to Anglo-Protestantism, 1850-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988)
Harlan E. Hague, Prophets and Paupers: Religion in the California Gold Rush, 1848-1869 (San Francisco: International Scholars Publications, 1996)
Laurie F. Maffly-Kipp, Religion and Society in Frontier California (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).
Hugh S. Baker, "'Rational Amusement in Our Midst': Public Libraries in California, 1849-1859," California Historical Society Quarterly 38 (December 1959): 295-320.
James J. Rawls and Richard J. Orsi, eds., A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California (Berke- ley: University of CaHfornia Press, 1999).
14
Roger W. Lotchin, San Francisco, 1846-1856: From Hamlet to City, 2d ed. (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 348-49
Roberta J. Park, "San Franciscans at Work and at Play, 1846-1869 Journal of the West 22, no. 1 (1983): 47.
15
Starr, Americans and the California Dream, 73.
16
James J. Rawls, Indians of California: The Changing Image (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984), 171-86.
Sherburne F. Cook, The Population of the California Indians, 1769-1970 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976)
Albert L. Hurtado, In- dian Survival on the California Frontier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988)
Ra- mon A. Gutiérrez and Richard J. Orsi, eds., Contested Eden: California before the Gold Rush (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).
17
James A. Sandos, "'Because He Is a Liar and a Thief: Conquering the Residents of'Old' California, 1850-1880," in Rooted in Barbarous Soil, ed. Starr and Orsi, 86-112
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Califor- nians, 1846-1890 (1966; reprint, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)
Douglas Monroy, Thrown among Strangers: The Making of Mexican Culture in Frontier California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990)
Lisbeth Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769-1936 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
18
Monroy, Thrown among Strangers, 227-28.
19
J. Ross Browne, Report of the Debates in the Convention of California, on the For- mation of the State Constitution, in September and October, 1849 (Washington, D.C.: J. T. Tow- ers, 1850)
David Alan Johnson, Founding the Far West: California, Oregon, and Nevada, 1840-1890 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).
20
Board of State Capitol Commissioners Records, 1856-1911, in the California State Archives, Sacramento.
21
Benjamin F. Taylor, Between the Gates (Chicago: S. C. Griggs and Co., 1878), 64.
22
George W. Bryan, The Lure of the Past, the Present, and Future (Los Angeles: E. G. Newton Co., 1911), 87.
23
Robert J. Chandler, "Fort Alcatraz: Symbol of Federal Power," Periodical: Journal of the Council on America's Military Past 13, no.2 (1984): 27-47.
24
Andrew Rolle, John Charles Frémont: Character as Destiny (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991)
Ray R. Albin, "Edward D. Baker and California's First Repub- lican Campaign," California History 60 (Fall 1981): 280-89.
25
J. G. Player-Frowd, Six Months in California (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1872), 13.
26
Charles Nordhoff, California for Health, Pleasure, and Residence: A Book for Travellers and Settlers (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1873), 189.
27
Sucheng Chan, This Bittersweet Soil: The Chinese in California Agricul- ture, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986)
Alexander Saxton, The In- dispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971)
Andrew Gyory, Closing the Gate: Race, Politics, and the Chinese Exclusion Act (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998)
Robert W. Cher- ny, "Patterns of Toleration and Discrimination in San Francisco," California History 73 (Sum- mer 1994): 130-41.
28
Claire Perry, Pacific Arcadia: Images of California, 1600-1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 99-133.
Alfred Runte, Yosemite: The Embattled Wilderness (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990).
29
The San Francisco Illustrated Wasp, December 4, 1880, 274.
30
Lotchin, San Francisco, 174-81.
31
Solomon Mead, Notes of Two Trips to California and Return, Taken in 1883 and 1886-7 (Greenwich, Conn.: n.d.), 40
C. F. Gordon-Cumming, Granite Crags (Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and Sons, 1884), 20-22.
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