Notes

Notes
1
George Douglas Brewerton, "Declaration for Service Pension, War of 1846 With Mex- ico," Pension and Record Office, Commis- sioner of Pensions, War Department, Wash- ington, D.C, July 10,1890 and June 13,1894. Courtesy Col. Merl M. Moore.
2
George D. Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Car- son Through the Great American Desert and the Rocky Mountains," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. 7 (August 1853):306- 307
W. T. Sherman, by order of Col. R. B. Mason, Special Order No. 9, Headquar- ters, 10th Military Department, Monterey, California, March 10, 1848, in Col. J.D. Stevenson, General Order Book, 1846-1848, B. V. Stevenson, Courtesy of New-York His- torical Society.
3
"Fine Arts: Williams and Stevens' Annual Sale," (New York) Home Journal, October 29, 1853, p. 3.
4
"Fine Arts: Landscape Painting," (New York) Home Journal, February 19,1853, p. 3.
5
George Douglas Brewerton, The War In Kansas, A Rough Trip to the Border Among New Homes and Strange People (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1856), 21.
7
}. Elet Milton, "Fort Brewerton," New York History, vol. 7 (1926): 105-107
miscella- neous papers, Brewerton Family Papers, 1760- 1910, U.S. Military Academy Library, Spe- cial Collections, West Point, N.Y, n.p. (hereafter cited as BFP).
8
James M. Whistler. Tenth Annual Reunion of the Association of the Graduates of the United- States Military Academy at West Point, New York, June 12,1879 (New York: D. Van Nos- trand, 1879), 84-90
Francis B. Heitman, His- torical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, From Its Organization, Septem- ber 29,1789, to March 2,1903,2 vols. (Wash- ington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Of- fice, 1903), 1:243
"General H. Brewerton/' Typescript, BFP, n.p.
9
1830 U.S. Census of South Car- olina, St. James Goose Creek, Charleston County, 174
1840 Census of New York, New York City Eighth Ward, New York County, 391
1850 Census of New York, Town of Cornwall, Orange County, 178
Tenth Annual Reunion, 84-90
"General H. Brewerton," Typescript, BFP, n.p.
George W. Cullum, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., From Its Establishment, in 1802, to 1890, 3 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1891), 1:209-210.
10
Pay Receipt, Henry Brewerton, Assistant Professor of Drawing, 30 April 1819, BFP.
11
George Douglas Brewerton, Overland with Kit Carson: A Narrative of the Old Spanish Trail in '48, Stallo Vinton ed. (New York: Cow- ard-McCann Inc., 1930), 23
Irene Weir, Robert W. Weir, Artist (New York, House of Field-Doubleday, 1947), 48
Henry Tucker- man, Book of the Artists, American Artists' Lives and Comprehensive Biographies and Crit- ical Sketches and of the Rise and Progress of Art In America (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867), 204 and 207
Cullum, Biographical Reg- ister, 1:39.
12
"Historical Sketch of Department of Draw- ing" in U.S. Military Academy, The Centen- nial of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, 1802-1902 (Washing- ton: Government Printing Office, 1902), 291 and 293.
13
William Gerdts, "Robert Weir: Artist and Teacher of West Point" in Robert Weir: Artist and Teacher of West Point (West Point: Cadet Fine Arts Forum, 1976), 9-23.
Gerdts (p. 9)
14
East- man, West Point class of 1829, wrote Trea- tise on Topographical Drawing (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1837)
Pennsylvanian Smith, who became a drawing master at the U.S. Naval Academy in the 1870s, wrote A Man- ual of Topographical Drawing (New York: Wi- ley & Halsted, 1854)
A Manual of Lin- ear Perspective (New York: Wiley & Halsted, 1857).
Heitman, Historical Register, 1:394
1:902.
15
Cullum, Biographical, 1:38-40
U.S. Military Academy, Regulations Established for the Or- ganization and Government of the Military Academy At West Point (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1839), 12
U.S. Military Academy, Official Register of the Officers and Cadets of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New-York (sic), June 1841, 6, 22-23
June 1849, 3, 22-23
"Historical Sketch," 290-93.
16
Henry Tuckerman, Book of the Artists, Amer- ican Artists' Lives and Comprehensive Biogra- phies and Critical Sketches and of the Rise and Progress of Art In America (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867), 207.
17
James L. Morrison, "Getting Through West Point: The Cadet Memoirs of John C. Tid- ball, Class of 1848," Civil War History 26 (De- cember 1980), 321
Heitman, Historical Register, 1:961.
Tidball wrote his memoirs of the same title in 1892
18
Stephen W. Sears, George B. McClellan, The Young Napoleon (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1988), 6-7
James I. Robertson Jr., Stonewall Jackson, The Man, The Soldier, The Legend (New York: MacMillan Publishing, 1997), 38-41.
19
Sears, McClellan, 28-29.
John C. Waugh, The Class of 1846, From West Point To Appomattox: Stonewall Jackson, George Mc- Clellan and Their Brothers (New York: Bal- lantine Books, 1994).
20
Anthony Kirk, "In A Golden Land So Far: The Rise of Art in Early California," California History 71 (1992:1): 2-23
"Picturing California," California History 76 (1997:2-3): 357-374
Canice (sic) G Ciruzzi, " 'Phoenix' Revis- ited: Another Look At George Horatio Derby," Journal of San Diego History (Spring 1980): 77-89
James L. Morrison, "Get- ting Through West Point: The Cadet Mem- oirs of John C. Tidball, Class of 1848," Civil War History 26 (December 1980): 304-325.
21
The New York Volun- teers in California: With Stevenson to Califor- nia [by] James Lynch and Stevenson's Regi- ment in California [by] Francis Clark (Glorieta, N.M., Rio Grande Press, 1970).
"Francis D. Clark," Daily Alta California, August [25?], 1878, p. 2
22
W. L. Marcy to Gen. S. W. Kearney, September 12,1848, House Exec- utive Document No. 17, 31st Congress, 1st Session, Serial 573,11 vols, V:241.
23
"Westward, Ho!," New York Express, cited in Boston Evening Transcript, September 25, 1846, p. 2.
24
"New York Volunteers and Artillery Com- pany, 1846-1848" in H. H. Bancroft, The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, vol. V, 1846-1848, 39 vols. (San Francisco: The History Company, 1886), XXII: 499-523
Clark, Stevenson's Regiment, 83; and New York Herald, September 6,1846
Clark, 15.
26
Walter Murray, Narrative of a California Vol- unteer, 1878, MS 212, H. H. Bancroft Collec- tion, Bancroft Library, University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, 19-21.
27
Ibid., 22 and 24.
28
George Douglas Brewerton, Argonaut Mem- ories (San Francisco: Frank Eastman & Co., 1887), 29.
30
George Douglas Brewerton, "Declaration for Service Pension, War of 1846 With Mex- ico/' Pension and Record Office, Commis- sioner of Pensions, War Department, Wash- ington, D.C., June 13,1894.
The Southampton left Norfolk, Virginia February 22, 1847
Deck Log USS Southampton, February 9,1847, to April 11,1849, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C
31
C. Clark, Stevenson's Regiment, 47-49
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Car- son," 306.
32
Brewerton, Argonaut Memories, 29.
33
"A Ride With Kit Carson Through the Great American Desert and the Rocky Moun- tains," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 7 (August 1853), 306.
34
(San Francisco) Californian, October 20, 1847, p. 3
35
Brewerton, Argonaut Memories, 19-20.
36
(San Francisco) Californian, October 20,1847, p. 3.
37
Ibid., November 17 and December 1,1847, p. 2.
39
Brewerton, Argonaut Memories, 19
Bancroft, The Works of Hubert Howe Ban- croft, History of California, vol. V, 1846- 1848, 39 vols. (San Francisco: The History Company, 1886), XXII: 575-581.
40
(San Francisco) Californian, February 16, 1848, p. 2.
41
Ibid.
42
Brewerton Argonaut Memories, 29.
William Tecumseh Sherman, Mem- oirs of William T. Sherman 2 vols. (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1875), 1:33.
43
John H. Merrill, San Francisco, to Thomas Oliver Larkin, January 22,1848, in George P. Hammond, ed., The Larkin Papers, 1847- 1848,11 vols. (Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1960), VII:122-123.
Larkin, who had been in California since 1832, became U.S. consul in 1844.
Harlan Hague, "The Jumping Off Place of the World': Cal- ifornia and the Transformation of Thomas O. Larkin," California History 70 (Winter 1991): 352-65.
44
John H. Merrill to Thomas Oliver Larkin, San Francisco, January 22, 1848, in Ham- mond, Larkin Papers,VIL122-123.
Clark, Stevenson's Regiment, 48, and Hubert Howe Bancroft, California Pi- oneer Register and Index 1542-1848, Including Inhabitants of California, 1769-1800 and List of Pioneers in Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California (San Francisco: The History Company, 1884-1890), 246.
45
Brewerton, "Declaration for Service Pen- sion, 13 June 1894."
46
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., Letters of Application and Recommendation, Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan, 1853-1861, General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59, M967.
47
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 306
Brewerton, Argonaut, 29
"Passengers: In The Barnstable" and "Sailed: Ship Barnstable for Boston via Mon- terey and San Diego," Californian, March 22, 1848, p. 3.
48
Brewerton were titled "Incidents of Travel in New Mexico," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. 8 (April 1854): 577-96
"In The Buf- falo Country," Harper's New Monthly Maga- zine, vol. 25 (September 1862): 447-60.
49
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 307
Milo Milton Quaife, ed., Kit Carson's Auto- biography (Lincoln, Neb.: University of Ne- braska Press, 1966), 120 and 122
Clark, Stevenson's Regiment, 49.
50
Brewerton, Argonaut Memories, 29.
51
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 307.
52
George Douglas Brewerton, Speech to The Associated Pioneers of Territorial California, New York, August 1, 1878, in Samuel Up- ham, Notes of a Voyage To California Via Cape Horn, Together With Scenes in El Dorado, 1849- 1850 (Philadelphia: Printed by the Author, 1878), 494
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Car- son," 307
William T. Sherman to George D. Brewerton, cited in "California Pioneers, A Letter From General Sherman Read At Their Meeting Last Night," Daily Alta California, November 8,1887, p. 2
New York Times, November 16,1887, p. 4.
53
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 307, 309.
54
Ibid., 310-311.
55
Ibid., 311.
56
Ibid., 311-312.
57
Ibid., 315-16
In The Buffalo Country, 449.
58
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 316- 317
59
Brewerton, "Incidents of Travel," 595-96.
60
Ibid.
61
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 318.
62
Twain's description of Indians, including "Digger Indians," in Chapter 19 of Rough- ing It (1872), is equally egregious.
63
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 321.
64
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 323.
65
History of Washington, the Evergreen State, From Early Dawn to Daylight, 2 vols. (New York: Amer- ican Historical Publishing Co., 1893), 1:172.
66
Brewerton, "A Ride With Kit Carson," 329.
67
Jourdan Houston, "George Douglas Brewerton, Pioneer Artist of Terri- torial New Mexico," New Mexico Historical Review 73:3 (1998): 207-233.
68
U. S. Bureau of Pensions, Affidavit of Parmenas T. Turnley, Lake County Illinois, 21 November 1902, filed 5 December 1902.
69
"Fine Arts: Mr. Brewerton's Pictures," Home Journal (New York), May 28,1853, p. 2.
70
Catalogue of a collection of Paintings by Cele- brated Artists . . . To Be Sold On Monday Morning, Jan. 2511869] . . . At the Gallery of A. A. Childs & Co.... Samuel Hatch & Co, Auc- tioneers, 4
Boston Evening Transcript, January 25,1869, p. 3.
71
Paul C. Mills Archive of California Art, Oakland Museum Research Report, 31 March 1969, 1
Harold Steiner, The Old Spanish Trail Across the Mojave Desert: A History and Guide (Las Vegas, Nev.: The Haldor Company, 1999)
LeRoy R. Hafen and Ann W. Hafen, Old Spanish Trail, Santa Fe to Los Angeles (Glen- dale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1954).
72
Horatio Greenough, "American Art," in Henry Tuckerman, A Memorial to Horatio Greenough (New York: G P. Putnam & Co., 1853), 108.
73
"Fine Arts: Mr. Brewerton's Pictures," Home Journal (New York), May 28,1853, p. 2.
74
Heitman, Historical Regis- ter, 1:1029-30
'Army Portfolio," Boston Evening Transcript, August 27,1847, p. 2
"The Army Portfolio," Boston Evening Tran- script, September 7,1847, p. 2.
75
Willard O. Waters, ed., California 1847-1852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton (San Marino: Huntington Library, 1956)
William Rich Hutton, Glances at California, 1847-1853, Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton. (San Marino: The Huntington Li- brary, 1942).
76
"The Fine Arts in California," San Diego Union, June 10, 1851, p. 2
"The Rival Sculptors," Alta California, April 26,1851, p. 2.
Jan- ice T. Driesbach, "Landmarks of Early Cal- ifornia Painting: The Crocker Art Museum Exhibition," California History, vol. 71 (Spring 1992): 24-59,143-144
Janice T. Dries- bach, Harvey L. Jones, and Katherine Church Holland, Art of the Gold Rush, (Oak- land, Calif. : Oakland Museum of Califor- nia, 1998)
Edan Milton Hughes, Artists of California, 1786-1940 (San Francisco: Hughes Publishing Co., 1986).
77
James Yarnall and William Gerdts, The National Museum of American Art's Index to American Art Exhibition Catalogs: From the Beginning Through the 1876 Centennial Year. 6 vols. (Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1986), 1:440
"Our Crystal Palace," Putnam's Monthly 2 (August 1853): 125
Charles Neider, ed., The Complete Travel Book of Mark Twain (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Com- pany, 1966), ix.
78
"The Infant of the Monthlies," New York Daily Times, June 15, 1854, p. 5
"To Those Not Born on the Soil," Young Amer- ica, vol. 1, No. 1 (July 1854): 8.
79
Brewerton, The War In Kansas, 15-16, 206
"Brewerton's War In Kansas," New York Daily Times, April 10,1856, p. 5.
The New South, Vol. 1, No. 12 (Port Royal, S.C.), November 8, 1862, p. 1.
"Colonel George Douglas Brewerton," Brooklyn Eagle, Feb- ruary 1,1901.
80
Clark S. Marlor, A History of the Brooklyn Art Association With An Index of Exhibitions (New York: James F. Carr, 1970), 131.
"George D. Brewerton, Artist, in Oil, Pencil or Pastel" at the end of Brewerton's 66-page volume, Ida Lewis, The Heroine of Lime Rock (Newport: A. J. Ward, 1869).
81
Brewerton's other works in the Boston sale were Light- ship in the Fog (14 by 22 inches); Mount-Desert Light, Storm Approaching (14 by 22 inches); Winter on the Delaware (14 by 22 inches). Cat- alogue of a Collection of Paintings by Cele- brated Artists . . . To Be Sold On Monday Morning, Jan. 25 [1869]..At the Gallery of A. A. Childs &Co_Samuel Hatch & Co, Auc- tioneers, 3,4,9 and 10, and Marlor, A History of the Brooklyn Art Association, 131.
82
Clark in Upham, Notes of a Voyage To Cali- fornia, 493-94.
84
Brewerton, Argonaut Memories, 24.
Camp Taylor is reported also in So- ciety of California Pioneers, Thirty-Sixth and Thirty-Seventh Anniversaries of the Admission of California into the Union ... September 9th, 1886 and September 9th, 1887 (San Francisco: Frank Eastman & Co., 1887).
85
"What Kit Carson Was Like," New York Times, November 16,1887, p. 2
"Cali- fornia Pioneers, A Letter From General Sher- man," Daily Alta California, November 8, 1887, p. 1.
86
"Art and Artists," San Francisco Chronicle, November 18,1888, p. 12.
88
History of Washington, 1:148.
89
Ibid.
91
"Colonel George Douglas Brewerton," Brooklyn Eagle, February 1, 1901
New York Times, February 1, 1901, p. 9.
92
Brewerton, Argonaut Memories, 23.
1
Glenn S. Dumke, The Boom of the Eighties in Southern California (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1944).
Bernard Marchand, The Emergence of Los Angeles: Population and Housing in the City of Dreams, 1940-1970 (London: Pion, 1986), 63
Andrew Rolle, Los Angeles: From Pueblo to City of the Future, 2nd ed. (San Francisco, Caiif.: MTL, 1995), 36.
William Deverell, Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Railroad, 1850- 1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
2
The Mirror, September 25,1893, p. 3, Album No. 23, Lynden E. Behymer Collection, The Prints and Ephemera Division of the Rare Book Department (hereafter BC) at the Huntington Library.
George D. Betts was the editor of the Los Angeles Theatre programs,
which took the name of The Mirror in Octo- ber 1892
The Players in April 1894.
3
John Koegel, "Can- ciones del país: Mexican Musical Life in California after the Gold Rush," California History LXXVIII, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 177.
4
Koegel, "Canciones del país," 178-79
"Calendar of Southern California Amuse- ments 1852-1897 Designed for the Spanish- Speaking Public," Inter-American Music Re- view XIII, no. 2 (Spring-Summer 1993): 123-24
Robert Stevenson, "Music in South- ern California: A Tale of Two Cities," Inter- American Music Review X, no. 1 (Fall-Winter 1988): 58.
5
Koegel, "Canciones del país," 179
"Calendar of Southern California Amusements," 124.
Howard Swan, Music in the Southwest, 1825-1950 (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1952), 120-122
Moshe Yaari, "The Merced Theater," His- torical Society of Southern California Quar- terly 37 (September 1955): 195-210.
6
Swan, Music in the Southwest, 122.
Koegel, "Canciones del país," 180
Stevenson, "Music in Southern California," 59-60.
his "Carreño's 1875 California Appearances," Inter-American Music Review V, no. 2 (Spring-Summer 1983): 13.
7
Los Angeles Times, Tuesday morning, De- cember 13, 1881, p. 3
Los Angeles Times, Thursday morning, January 5, 1882, p. 3.
San Diego Union, March 25, 1883.
Sue Wolfer Earnest, "An Historical Study of the Growth of the Theatre in Southern California, 1848-1894," 3 vols. (Ph.D. diss., University of Southern California, 1947), vol. 1: 388.
8
Los Angeles Times, Wednesday, January 2, 1895, p. 1
Footlights, May 8,1893, p. 3, Album No. 23, BC.
9
Los Angeles Daily Herald, May 25,1884
Los Angeles Times Illustrated Weekly, March 28, 1914
Earnest, 'An Historical Study," vol. 1:396.
Catherine Par- sons Smith discussed Behymer and his role in Los Angeles's cultural life in a paper, '"Our Awe Struck Vision': The Emergence of L.E. Behymer as an Impresario," given at the fiftieth anniversary of the Music Library Association, Pasadena Public Library, Oc- tober 18,1991.
10
Harris Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern California, 1853-1913 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1930), 543
J. A. Graves, My Seventy Years in California, 1857-1927 (Los Angeles: Times-Mirror Press, 1927), 128.
Eddy S. Feldman, The Art of Street Lighting in Los An- geles (Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop, 1972), 26-30.
11
John Northcutt, "Music Halls of Yesterday," January 19, 1931, California Historical So- ciety Collection, USC Special Collections.
12
Review [anon.], December 17,1888, Theater Programs, George A. Dobinson Collection, Los Angeles Public Library.
13
Stevenson, "Mu- sic in Southern California," 41-42.
14
Douglas Gilbert, American Vaudeville: Its Life and Times (New York and London: Whittle- sey House, 1940), 61-62.
15
Review [anon.], May 27, 1890, Album No. 56, BC.
16
Los Angeles Times, Thursday, January 3,1895, p. 6.
17
Robert C Toll, On With the Show! The First Century of Show Business in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 216- 21.
18
Review [anon., n.d.], 1888, Album No. 42, BC
Burton Lewis Karson, "Music Criticism in Los Angeles, 1881-1895" (M.A. thesis, Uni- versity of Southern California, 1959), 58-59.
19
Program [untitled], Los Angeles Theatre, July 24,1892, Album No. 26, BC
Los Ange- les Times, Monday, July 25,1892, p. 4.
20
Los Angeles Times, Sunday, November 17,1895, p. 35.
"Double Dates for Musin," Los Angeles Times, Saturday, No- vember 16,1895, p. 6.
Los An- geles Theatre on April 11 and 12,1892. Pro- gram, Los Angeles Theatre, Album No. 26, BC.
21
Richard Traubner, Operetta: A Theatrical His- tory (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1983)
Camille Crittenden, Johann Strauss and Vienna: Operetta and the Politics of Popu- lar Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- versity Press, 2001), esp. chap. 1.
22
Program [untitled], Los Angeles Theatre, April 9, 1891, Album No. 26, BC.
Program [untitled], Grand Opera House, May 6,1889, and Program [untitled], Grand Opera House, April 28,1890: Theater in LA Scrapbook, File 1155, f. 23r and 28v, Seaver Center for Western History Research, Nat- ural History Museum of Los Angeles County.
Los Angeles Times, Friday, April 10,1891, p. 4.
23
Los Angeles Times, Thursday, April 13,1893, p. 4.
Los Angeles Times, Saturday, No- vember 16,1895, p. 6.
George C. Odell, Annals of the New York Stage (New York: Columbia University Press, 1949), 15 vols., vol. XV: 34, 314.
24
Odell, Annals of the New York Stage, vol. XV: 89.
Program [The Play Bill], Grand Opera House, July 7,1891, Photo Collection, No. 2627, Seaver Center for Western History Research, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
Los Angeles Times, Wednesday, July 8,1891, p. 4.
25
Program [The Play Bill], Grand Opera House, February 28, 1893, Album No. 23, BC
Los Angeles Times, Wednesday, March 1, 1893, p. 4.
26
Los Ange- les Times, Friday, February 8,1895, p. 6
Pro- gram [untitled], Los Angeles Theatre, Feb- ruary 7-9, 1895, Dobinson Collection, Los Angeles Public Library.
Program [un- titled], Los Angeles Theatre, Jan. 5,1897, Al- bum No. 51, f. 14, BC.
27
The Mirror, April 9,1894, p. 5
The Players, June 22-23,1894, p. 5, Album No. 27, BC
Los Angeles Times, Saturday, June 23,1894, p. 1.
28
Los Angeles Times, Saturday, June 23,1894, p. 4
The Mirror, April 19,1893, p. 9, Album No. 23, BC.
Los An- geles Times, Thursday, February 8,1894, p. 6.
29
The Mirror, August 21, 1893, p. 3, Album No. 23, BC.
30
C.L. Bagley, "History of the Band and Orchestra Busi- ness in Los Angeles," The Overture 5, no. 5 (June 15,1925): 4.
Catherine Parsons Smith, "'Something of Good for the Future': The People's Orches- tra of Los Angeles," 19th-century Music XVI, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 152-53
Earnest, "An His- torical Study," vol. 1: 623-24.
31
Program [untitled], Los Angeles Theatre, January 1,1889, Album No. 25, BC.
32
Program [untitled], Los Angeles Theatre, October 21,1898[?], Album No. 51, f. 88, BC.
33
Koegel, "Canciones del país," 178.
34
Henry Winfred Splitter, "Music in Los An- geles," Historical Society of Southern Califor- nia Quarterly 38 (December 1956): 324.
Catherine Parsons Smith, "Inventing Tradition: Symphony and Opera in Pro- gressive-Era Los Angeles," Music and Cul- ture in America, 1861-1918, ed. Michael Saf- fle (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1998), 305-306.
35
The Mirror, April 14, 1893, p. 9, Album No. 23, BC
Los Angeles Times, Saturday, April 15,1893, p. 4.
36
Program [untitled], Los Angeles Theatre, October 14 and 16,1897, Dobinson Collec- tion, Los Angeles Public Library.
Smith, "Inventing Tradition," 309.
37
Susan Naulty, notes, p. 1, Behymer Collec- tion Reference Papers, Huntington Library.
38
Bartlett's Musical and Home Journal (September 1888), p. 9, Cambria Archives, San Pedro, Calif.
39
The Mirror, February 20, 1893, p. 9
ibid., May 1,1893, p. 3
ibid., May 8,1893, p. 3 and backpage, Album No. 23, BC.
Earnest, 'An Historical Study," vol. 1: 623.
40
Program [untitled], Los Angeles Theatre, June 3,1897, Album No. 51, f. 31, BC.
41
Lynn Moody Hoffman, "Starlit Trails," Research Sum- mary Report (unpublished manuscript, 1977), p. 5, Behymer Collection Reference Papers, Huntington Library.
Robert Stevenson, "William Andrews Clark, Jr., Founder of the Los Angeles Philhar- monic Orchestra," William Andrews Clark, Jr.: His Cultural Legacy. Papers read at a Clark Li- brary Seminar, 7 November 1981, by William E. Conway, Robert Stevenson (UCLA: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1985), 31-52.
42
Los Angeles Times, Thursday, February 8,1894, p. 6.
43
Los Angeles Advertiser, Vol. 1, No. 3, March 1887.
44
The Players, November 13-16,1895, Album No. 28, BC
The Stage, October 1,1894, p. 3, Album No. 23, BC.
The Mirror, October 2,1893, p. 2, Album No. 23, BC.
The Mirror, May 1,1893, back cover, Al- bum No. 23, BC.
45
Toll, On With the Show!, 267-72
Lawrence Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), 195- 97.
46
Impresario Lynden Behymer outlined some of the problems he faced in "The Manager's Lot in the Southland. The Eternal Triangle of Artist, Public and Impresario," Who's Who in Music and Dance in Southern Califor- nia, ed. Bruno David Ussher (Hollywood, Calif.: Bureau of Musical Research, 1933), 79- 80.
47
Los Angeles Times, Tuesday, August 29,1893, p. 4.
48
Michael Saffle, "Promoting the Local Product: Reflections on the California Musical Press, 1874-1914," Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918, ed. Michael Saffle (New York and London: Gar- land Publishing, 1998), 167-91
Burton Lewis Karson, "Music Criticism in Los An- geles 1895-1910" (D.M.A. diss., University of Southern California, 1964).
1
Mark H. Stevens, "Meyer Lissner and the Politics of Progressive Municipal Reform in the City of Los Angeles, 1906-1913" (Ph.D. diss., The Claremont Graduate School, 1995), espe- cially chapters 1-6.
Spencer C. Olin, California Politics, 1846-1920: The Emerging Corporate State (San Francisco: Boyd & Fraser Publishing Company, 1981), 56
James P. Kraft, "The Fall of Job Harri- man's Socialist Party: Violence, Gender, and Politics in Los Angeles, 1911," Southern Cal- ifornia Quarterly 70, No. 1 (Spring 1988):43- 68
Herbert Shapiro, "The McNamara Case: A Window on Class Antagonism in the Pro- gressive Era," Southern California Quarterly 70, No. 1 (Spring 1988):61-95
William J. De- verell, "The Los Angeles 'Free Harbor' Fight," California History, 70 (Spring 1991):13-29
his Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Rail- road, 1850-1910 (Berkeley, University of Cal- ifornia Press, 1994), 2-3,94-95, and 109
John M. Allswang, "The Origins of Direct Democracy in Los Angeles and California: The Development of An Issue and Its Rela- tionship to Progressivism," Southern Cali- fornia Quarterly 78, No.2 (Summer 1996):175- 198.
Meyer Lissner to Hon. Hiram W. Johnson, February 15,1911,1-2, Edward Augustus Dickson Papers, De- partment of Special Collections, Research Library, University of California, Los An- geles, hereafter referred to as the Dickson Papers
M. Lissner to Hon. Frank H. Hitch- cock, January 20,1912, Dickson Papers
Jan- ice Jacques, "The Political Reform Move- ment in Los Angeles, 1900-1909 (M.A. Thesis, The Claremont Graduate School, 1948), 51
Fred W. Viehe, "The First Re- call: Los Angeles Urban Reform or Machine Politics?" Southern California Quarterly 70, No. 1 (Spring 1988):21.
2
Frank Mann Stewart, A Half Century of Municipal Reform: The History of the National Municipal League (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 1950), 1-200.
3
Pamphlet-Handbook, "The Municipal League of Los Angeles," 1912, 1-4, Meyer Lissner Papers, Stanford University, here- after referred to as the Lissner Papers
Meyer Lissner to S. B. Silverwood, Esq., September 10.1908
Meyer Lissner to A. F. Rosen- heim, September 10, 1908, Lissner Papers.
4
Meyer Lissner to Hon. Frank K. Mott, Au- gust 29, 1908
Meyer Lissner to Francis J. Heney, August 31, 1908
Meyer Lissner to James D. Phelan, September 5,1908
Meyer Lissner to J. O. Koepfli, Esq., et al., Septem- ber 10,1908
Meyer Lissner to Chester Rowell, September 16,1908, Lissner Papers.
5
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Meyer Lissner, November 15,1910
Meyer Lissner to Albert Bushneil Hart, Esq., March 7, 1911, Lissner Papers.
6
Meyer Lissner to Hon. George Alexander, March 20,1911,1, Lissner Papers.
7
Ibid., 1-2.
8
Executive Committee of the Municipal League of Los Angeles Resolution, March 28, 1911
Meyer Lissner to S. C. Graham, March 30, 1911
Meyer Lissner to Rev. Charles N. Lathrop, April 1, 1911
Meyer Lissner to Hon. H. Stanley Benedict, April 3, 1911
Meyer Lissner to Frank Wiggins, April 3, 1911
Meyer Lissner to Frank G. Henderson, April 4,1911
Meyer Lissner to Hon. Hiram W. Johnson, April 4, 1911
Meyer Lissner to Dr. E. C. Moore, April 4, 1911
Meyer Lissner to A. F. Rosenheim, April 4,1911
Meyer Lissner to G. W. Ran- dall, April 5,1911
Meyer Lissner to Frank J. Symmes, April 6,1911
Los Angeles Cham- ber of Commerce to National Municipal League, April 6,1911
Meyer Lissner to Hon. C. H. Randall, April 7, 1911
Meyer Lissner to G. W Randall, Esq., June 7,1911, Lissner Papers.
9
Ibid.
10
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to M. Lissner, Jan- uary 24,1908
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to the Members of the National Municipal League, April 9, 1908
Meyer Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, September 29, 1911, Meyer Lissner to E. O. Edgerton and Charles D. Willard, September 29,1911
Meyer Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, November 23,1911, 2-3, Lissner Papers.
11
Meyer Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, November 15,1911, Lissner Papers.
12
Meyer Lissner to San Francisco Convention League, November 10,1911, Lissner Papers.
13
Ibid.
14
Invitation from William Dudley Foulke, et al., to All Members and Supporters of the National Municipal League, n.d.
Na- tional Municipal League Membership Card, n.d., Lissner Papers.
15
E. D. Chappell to Meyer Lissner, January 22, 1912, and Meyer Lissner to the National Mu- nicipal League, January 31,1912, Lissner Pa- pers.
16
National Municipal League Subordinate Los Angeles Committee's Membership Lists, n.d.
Charles Dwight Willard to M. Lissner, May 1, 1912, Lissner Papers
"Municipal League Convention Today," Los Angeles Examiner (July 8,1912), 3.
17
Woodruff to League Executive Council Members, February 14,1912, Lissner Papers.
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Mrs. Charles F. Edson, May 7, 1912, Katherine Philips Edson Papers, De- partment of Special Collections, Research Library, University of California, Los An- geles, hereafter referred to as the Edson Pa- pers, 1-2.
18
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Meyer Lissner, Esq., March 30,1912
Meyer Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, April 1,1912
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Meyer Lissner, Esq., May 3,1912,1-2
Meyer Liss- ner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, May 4, 1912
M. Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, June 3,1912
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Meyer Lissner, Esq., June 5, 1912, Lissner Papers.
19
Meyer Lissner to Myron Hunt, June 7,1912
Meyer Lissner to Hon. Board of Supervi- sors of Los Angeles, June 7,1912
"Munic- ipal League Convention Today," Los Ange- les Examiner (July 8,1912), 4
Meyer Lissner, "Honesty Plus Efficiency," An Address Pre- sented Before the National Municipal League, July 9,1912, reprinted in the Cali- fornia Outlook 12 (Saturday, July 20, 1912):10
Meyer Lissner to Hon. R. W. Pridham, et al., December 4,1912,1-2, Liss- ner Papers.
20
"Political Bug Finds Bars Up," Los Angeles Times (July 8,1912), pt. 2, p. 1
"Municipal League Convention Today," Los Angeles Ex- aminer, (July 8,1912), 3
"Municipal Ex- perting League Head's Idea," Los Angeles Times (July 9,1912), pt. 2, pp. 1 and 3.
21
Ibid., p. 1.
22
"Thousands Watch Municipal Parade To Be Demonstration Of Los Angeles' Growth," Los Angeles Examiner (July 8,1912), 3
"Pa- rade Of City Employees; Opening Feature Of Great Meet," Los Angeles Record (July 8, 1912), 1 and 9
"Program Of The Day," Los Angeles Herald (July 8, 1912), 1
"4000 City Employees In Five Mile Parade," Los Ange- les Herald (July 8, 1912), 1 and 4
John A. Gray, et al., "National Municipal League Opens With Display," Los Angeles Examiner (July 9, 1912), 17
"Municipality Dis- plays Activities; Parade May Be Held An- nually," Los Angeles Express (July 8,1912), 1.
23
Ibid.
"Thousands Watch_," Los An- geles Examiner (July 8,1912), 1.
24
"Story Told In Photos; Models," Los Angeles Times (July 8,1912), 1.
25
"Municipal League Convention Today," Los Angeles Examiner (July 8,1912), 3.
26
"Story Told....," Los Angeles Times (July 9, 1912), pt. 2, p. 3.
27
Ibid.
28
"National Municipal League. . ..," Los An- geles Examiner (July 9,1912), 17.
29
"Municipal League_," Los Angeles Exam- iner (July 8,1912), 3
"Program Of The Day," Los Angeles Times (July 8, 1912), pt. 2, p. 1
"Municipal Experting . . . .," Los Angeles Times (July 9,1912), pt. 2, p. 1
"National Municipal League. . ..," Los Angeles Herald (July 8,1912), 4.
30
"Municipal League_," Los Angeles Exam- iner (July 8,1912), 3
"Parade_," Los Angeles Record (July 8,1912), 9.
31
"Municipal Experting. . . .," Los Angeles Times (July 9,1912), pt. 2, pp. 1-3.
32
Ibid.
33
Ibid.
34
"Parade. . . .," Los Angeles Record (July 8, 1912), 9
"President Foulke Makes Plea For Reform," Los Angeles Record (July 9, 1912), 9.
35
Ibid.
36
Ibid.
37
"Parade. . . .," Los Angeles Record (July 8, 1912), 9.
38
"Programme For. . . .," Los Angeles Times (July 9,1912), pt. 2, p. 1
"Woman Plunges From Platform," Los Angeles Times (July 10, 1912), pt. 2, pp. 1 and 7
Meyer Lissner, "Honesty Plus ...," California Outlook (July 20,1912):9-10
"'We Have Progressed,' Says Meyer Lissner In Convention Paper," Los Angeles Express (July 9,1912), 4
"Municipal League Elects Officers. . . .," Los Angeles Record (July 9, 1912), 1 and 9
"Municipal League Lauds California's System Of Tax- ation," Los Angeles Record (July 10,1912), 1
"Civic Experts Pick Flaws In City's Pro- posed Charter; Noted Authorities Speak 'At Second Day's Sessions/" Los Angeles Examiner (July 10,1912), 8
"Boss Of The Political Ring Is Doomed," Los Angeles Her- ald, (July 11,1912), 9.
39
"Political Honesty Public Service Great Need," Los Angeles Express (April 17,1912), Lissner Papers
Lissner, "Honesty Plus—," California Outlook Quly 20,1912): 9
"'We Have Progressed. . . .," Los Angeles Express (July 9,1912), 4.
40
Lissner, "Honesty Plus—," California Out- look Ouly 20,1912): 9-10
"Municipal League Lauds. . . .," Los Angeles Record (July 10, 1912), 1
"Civic Experts . . . .," Los An- geles Examiner (July 10,1912), 8.
41
Lissner, "Honesty Plus_," California Out- look (July 20,1912): 10.
42
Ibid
Kraft, 43-68
Shapiro, 61-95.
43
Ibid.
44
"Municipal League Elects-," Los Angeles Record (July 9,1912), 1
"Municipalities League Honors_," Los Angeles Herald Quly 9,1912), 12.
45
Ibid
"Programme For_," Los Angeles Times (July 9,1912), pt. 2,p.l.
46
"Citizens Urged To Attend Municipal League Sessions," Los Angeles Express (July 10,1912), 5.
47
"Boss Of_," Los Angeles Herald (July 11, 1912), 1,9.
48
"Municipal League Lauds. . . .," Los Ange- les Record (July 10,1912), 1
"League Holds Discussion, Control Of Utilities," Los Ange- les Express (July 10,1912), 1
"Taxation Theme Today Of Municipal Leaders," Los Angeles Herald (July 10,1912), 1 and 8.
49
"State Board May Seek To Set Rates On Owens Water," Los Angeles Examiner Quly 11, 1912), 1
"Taxation Theme Today . . . .," Los Angeles Herald (July 10, 1912), 8
"League Holds Discussion. . . .," Los Ange- les Express (July 10,1912), 1,4, and 5.
50
"Political Bug. ...," Los Angeles Times (July 8,1912), 6
"Story Told...," Los Angeles Times (July 9, 1912), pt. 2, p. 3
"Programme For Today," Los Angeles Times (July 9,1912), pt. 2, p. 1
"Municipalities League Honors Mrs. C. F. Edson," Los Angeles Herald (July 9, 1912), 12
"Californians Honored By Mu- nicipal League," Los Angeles Express (July 9, 1912), 1
"Municipal League Elects Officers; Hears Papers Read By Civic Experts," Los Angeles Record (July 9, 1912), 1 and 9
"Woman Plunges From Platform," Los An- geles Times (July 10,1912), pt. 2, p. 7
"Taxa- tion Theme Today. . . .," Los Angeles Herald (July 10,1912), 8
"State Board....," Los An- geles Examiner (July 11, 1912), 2
Clinton Rogers Woodward to Meyer Lissner, July 16, 1912
Meyer Lissner to Reynold E. Blight, July 17, 1912, Lissner Papers
Mrs. Charles Farwell Edson, "The Actual Oper- ation of Woman's Suffrage in the Pacific Coast Cities," National Municipal Review 1 (September, 1912):620-621.
51
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Mrs. Charles Farwell Edson, June 27,1912
M. Lissner to Mrs. Charles Farwell Edson, July 11,1912, Edson Papers
"Boss Of. . . .," Los Angeles Herald Quly 11,1912), 1 and 9
"Leaguers Answer Questions About Model Charter," Los Angeles Record (July 12,1912), 1 and 11.
52
Meyer Lissner's Secretary to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, August 6,1918,1-3, Lissner Pa- pers.
53
Meyer Lissner to Robert Fuller, January 16, 1908
Meyer Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, January 23,1908
R. E. Cran- dall to M. Lissner, August 6,1908, Lissner Papers.
54
Meyer Lissner to Edward Dickson, January 7, 1909
Meyer Lissner to Hon. Robert M. LaFollette, July 25,1910
Meyer Lissner to A. B. Nye, December 19,1910
Meyer Liss- ner to John D. Mac Vicar, October 6, 1911
Meyer Lissner to F. E. Chad wick, U.S.N., November 13,1911,1-2, Lissner Pa- pers.
55
'A New Charter Impracticable," Pacific Out- look (volume unknown)(Saturday, August 13,1910):(pages unknown), Lissner Papers.
56
Meyer Lissner to Delos F. Wilcox, Novem- ber 22,1910
Meyer Lissner to J. B. East- man, November 29, 1910, Lissner Papers.
57
Meyer Lissner to Hon. A. B. Nye, Decem- ber 14,1910,1-2
Meyer Lissner to Hon. A. B. Nye, December 17,1910,1-2, Lissner Papers.
58
Meyer Lissner to University of Wisconsin, Madison, July 7, 1910
Meyer Lissner to Frederick Law Olmsted, December 23,1911
G Gordon Whitnall, 'Abstract of Methods of Appointing and Make-up of City Plan- ning Commission in Different Parts of the United States," n.d.
Meyer Lissner to E. A. Filene, January 25,1912
Meyer Lissner to Francis A. Eastman, February 24, 1912, Lissner Papers.
59
"Resolution of the Los Angeles City Coun- cil, Authorizing a Revision of the City Char- ter," Council Records, Proceedings of February 27,1912, 87:412, Lissner Papers.
60
Ibid.
61
"Take First Step For Commission Govern- ment Tomorrow," Los Angeles Herald (March 12, 1912)
"Coats Off For Model Charter," Los Angeles Times (March 14, 1912)
"Haynes Named To Head Charter Commission," Los Angeles Express (March 14, 1912)
"Charter Revision Board Orga- nizes," Los Angeles Examiner (March 14, 1912)
"Charter Revision Board Organizes; Dr. J. R. Haynes Chosen Chairman," Los Angeles Tribune (March 14, 1912)
Meyer Lissner to Hon. John D. Works, March 19, 1912, 1
"Revisionists Plan Short, Simple Charter," Los Angeles Herald (March 21, 1912)
"Six Provisions For Charter De- cided," Los Angeles Express (March 21, 1912)
"City Charter Form Determined," Los Angeles Examiner (March 21,1912)
Clin- ton Rogers Woodruff, "Charter Revision: Efforts to Improve Municipal Government, Citizens'Bulletin 10 (June 22,1912):1
Meyer Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, April 18, 1912
"Tells Of Commission Plan," Pasadena News (April 19,1912), all in Liss- ner Papers
E. A. Wolcott to Dr. John Ran- dolph Haynes, May 29,1912, pp. 1-4, John Randolph Haynes Collection, Department of Special Collections, Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles, here- after cited as the Haynes Papers
Bradley R. Rice, "The Galveston Plan of City Government by Commission: The Birth of a Progressive Idea," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 78 (1975):365-408.
John J. Hamilton, "Dividing and Delegat- ing Authority," California Outlook 12 (Sat- urday, May 18, 1912):10-11
Charles D. Willard, "Los Angeles Acts Up," California Outlook 13 (Saturday, July 6,1912):3-4
Martin J. Schiesl, "Progressive Reform In Los Angeles Under Mayor Alexander, 1909- 1913" California Historical Quarterly 54 (Spring, 1975):49.
62
"Take First Step. . . .," Los Angeles Herald, (March 12, 1912)
Lissner to Works, March 19,1912,1-2, Lissner Papers.
63
John J. Hamilton, "Synop- sis of the Work of the Los Angeles Charter Revision Commission-prior to May 28,1912, the Date of the Election of the Board of Freeholders," May 24,1912,1-2
John J. Hamilton to Meyer Lissner, March 27,1912, 1-2, Lissner Papers.
64
Clin- ton Rogers Woodruff to Meyer Lissner, Esq., April 6,1912
Hamilton, Synopsis, May 24, 1912,2-4
Commission Government Di- agram, n.d., Lissner Papers.
65
Hamilton to Lissner, March 27,1912,1-2
John J. Hamil- ton to Lewis R. Works, et al., April 19,1912, 1-4
"Framers Of Charter Fail To Agree," Los Angeles Tribune (April 11,1912), 1
"Six Thou- sand Salary For Commissioners," Los An- geles Times (April 11, 1912)
"Would Fix Salaries At $6000 A Year," Los Angeles Record (April 11, 1912)
"Would Fix Salaries At $6000 A Year," Los Angeles Express (April 11, 1912)
"Lively Debates Mark Charter Revi- sions," Los Angeles Examiner (April 11,1912)
"Four Commission Plan Suggested," Los Angeles Herald (April 11,1912)
"Lissner Favors Plan," Los Angeles Times (April 14, 1912), Lissner Papers.
66
note 64, above.
67
"Charter Work Is Started Formally," Los An- geles Express (May 30,1912)
"Consoli- dation Of Offices Proposed," Los Angeles Ex- press Oune 1,1912), Lissner Papers.
68
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Meyer Lissner, Esq., May 27, 1912
M. Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, May 30,1912
M. Lissner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, June 1, 1912, Lissner Papers
"Boss Of....," Los An- geles Herald (July 11,1912), 9.
69
Gray, et al., "National Municipal League. . . .," Los Angeles Examiner (July 9,1912), 17- 18.
70
Ibid.
71
"Leaguers Answer Questions.....," Los An- geles Record Quly 12, 1912), 11
"Civil Service Plan Urged For Charter," Los Ange- les Examiner Quly 12,1912), 2.
72
ibid.
"Leaguers Answer Questions....," Los Angeles Record Quly 12, 1912), 11
"Questions Submitted to the National Municipal League on Behalf of the Los Angeles Board of Freeholders," July 12,1912, Lissner Papers.
73
John A. Gray, "'City Charter Is Near Perfect Experts Agree," Los Angeles Examiner (July 13,1912), 5
"Civil Service Plan....," Los An- geles Examiner (July 12,1912), 2
"Leaguers Answer Questions....," Los Angeles Record Quly 12,1912) 11
"Municipal League Lead- ers Discuss Proposed Charter," Los Angeles Record (July 12, 1912), 11
"Civil Experts Dissect Los Angeles Charter," Los Angeles Express (July 12,1912), 1-2
"Favor City Manager-Charter Is Analyzed; Experts State Views," Los Angeles Herald (July 12,1912), 1 and 4.
74
John J. Hamilton, "The Discussion of the Los Angeles City Charter," National Municipal Review 1 (September 1912):653.
75
Ibid., 653-54.
76
Hamilton, Synopsis. May 24, 1912, 2-4
Woodruff to Lissner, April 6, 1912
Com- mission Government Diagram, n.d.
Meyer Lissner to Chester H. Rowell, July 19,1912, 1-2
"Charter Of the City of Los Angeles, Prepared and Proposed by a Board of Free- holders elected May 28, 1912," October 3, 1912,1-2
"Freeholders Sign New Charter," Los Angeles Tribune (October 4, 1912), 1-2
John J. Hamilton, "Proposed Charter for Los Angeles," California Outlook 13 (Satur- day, October 12,1912):11,16
" Citizens Arm Against 'Eddie' City Charter," Los Angeles Times (November 21, 1912), 1
"Rips The Cogs Out Of Machine's Charter," Los Ange- les Times (November 22,1912)
"Twelve Rea- sons Why The Charter Should Be Defeated," Los Angeles Times (November 24,1912), pt. 2, p. 1
Gesner Williams, "Great Danger To Taxpayers In Proposed City Charter," Los Angeles Times (November 24,1912)
"'Char- ter As Drawn, Pernicious, Dangerous/" Los Angeles Examiner (November 24,1912)
Ed- itorial, "The Villainoug Charter," Los Ange- les Times (November 25,1912)
Charles Ed- win Locke," Power Lies With People Under New Plan," Los Angeles Tribune (November 27, 1912), 1
"Los Angeles Makes Two Sweeping Charters In Great Municipal Re- form," Los Angeles Express (November 27, 1912), 1
"Charter Explained In Brief Form For Voters," Los Angeles Tribune (November 28,1912)
Citizens Charter Committee of Los Angeles Pamphlet, "Vote for the New Char- ter," n.d.
Pamphlet, "To All Voters: Jokes In New City Charter," n.d., Lissner Pa- pers.
Tom Sitton, John Randolph Haynes, California Progressive (Stanford, Calif. Stanford University Press, 1992), 110- 112
Tom Sitton, "Proportional Repre- sentation and the Decline of Progressive Reform in Los Angeles," Southern California Quarterly 77, No. 4 (Winter 1995):351-352.
77
Gray, "City Charter....," Los Angeles Exam- iner (July 13,1912), 5
Editorial, "Students Of Municipal Life," Los Angeles Record (July 11, 1912), 4
Clinton Rogers Woodruff to Meyer Lissner, Esq., July 28,1912
Meyer Liss- ner to Clinton Rogers Woodruff, August 21, 1912, Lissner Papers.
1
Dan Giesin, "The Extra Mile: At 61 Larkspur Woman Discovers Life in the Fast Lane,." San Francisco Chronicle, February 3,2002, E- 5.
2
Barry Spitz, Dipsea: The Greatest Race (San Anselmo, Calif.: Potrero Meadow Publishing, 1993), 207-209.
Phone conversation with author, May 16, 2002.
3
George James, "Will Woman Athlete Eclipse Man?" The Olympian (April 1918): 20.
4
Ibid., 20.
5
George James, quoted in John F Connolly, "Martin Hartmann Victor In Gruelling Dipsea Contest," The Olympian (May 1918): 11, 26.
6
Mark M. Reese, The Dipsea Race: The History of America's Second Oldest Footrace, 1905- 1979 (Sacramento, Calif.: Mark M. Reese, 1979), 230.
7
"No Women Athletes for American Team," The New York Times, March 31, 1914, 9
Paula Dee Welch, "The Emer- gence of American Women in the Summer Olympic Games, 1900-1972." (Ed.D. diss., University of North Carolina at Greens- boro, 1975), 19.
8
Dudley A. Sargent, "Are Athletics Making Girls Masculine? A Practical Answer To a Question Every Girl Asks," Ladies' Home Journal 29 (March 1912): 72.
9
Louise Mead Tricard, American Women's Track and Field: A History, 1895 Through 1980 (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 1996), 126-51.
10
Susan Cahn, Coming on Strong: Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Women's Sport (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994), 57-59.
11
Ibid., 35-36.
12
Alma Reed, "Call's Hike Established As Permanent Yearly Event," San Francisco Call, June 9,1919,13.
13
William Chafe, The Paradox of Change: Amer- ican Women in the 20th Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 99-118
Dorothy M. Brown, Setting a Course: Amer- ican Women in the 1920s (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987)
Angela J. Latham, Posing a Threat: Flappers, Chorus Girls, and Other Brazen Performers of the American 1920s (Hanover, Mass.: Wesley an University Press, 2000).
14
Lincoln Fairley, Mount Tamalpais: A History (San Francisco: Scottwall Associates, 1987), 79.
15
Shayer Oswin Lancelot Robinson, Inter- viewed October 1979, Mill Valley, Calif., Oral History Project of Mill Valley, Mill Val- ley Public Library, Box "P-S," p. 7.
16
"Laws to Restrain Frequenters of Trails Are Announced," Mill Valley Record, June 21, 1919,1.
17
"Residents on Trails Demand Protection from Marauders," Mill Valley Record, May 17,1919,1.
18
Mrs. John George (nee Virginia Glahn Cameron), interviewed August 22, 1979, Mill VcUey, Calif., Oral History Project of Mill Valley, Mill Valley Public Library, Box "G-H," p. 23.
19
Mr. George R. Pimlott, interviewed March 25,1975, Mill Valley, Calif., Oral History Pro- ject of Mill Valley, Mill Valley Public Library, Box "P-S," p. 8.
20
Mrs. C. Irvine Dowd (nee Margaret Wosser), interviewed October 1968, Mill Valley, Calif., Oral History Project of Mill Valley, Mill Val- ley Public Library, Box "D-E," p. 9.
21
Benjamin G. Rader, American Sports: From the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Televised Sports (Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1999), 127
Latham, Posing a Threat, 65-97.
22
Latham, Posing a Threat, 48-54.
23
"Why Not Legislation on Men's Legs?" San Francisco Chronicle, July 3, 1921, E8
Gertrude Jane, 'A Wallop For George," San Francisco Bulletin, April 5, 1923, 20
Bernard Einstein, "He's For Co- Eds, Rouged Lips and All," San Francisco Bulletin, May 1,1923
V.H.B., 'AnAuthority on Girls," San Francisco Bulletin, April 7, 1923, 22.
24
Dan Derrling, "Daring Dan Derrling De- nounces Flapper," San Francisco Bulletin, May 4,1923,20
Perry MacGill, "What's The Use?" San Francisco Bulletin, March 23,1923, 20
George Winters, "Oxford Versus Hy- men," San Francisco Bulletin, March 14,1923, 16
George Winters, "Wow! He Has Come- back," San Francisco Bulletin, March 22,1923, 16
Sweet Forty-Five, "The Flapper's Dress," San Francisco Bulletin, August 24, 1922, 16.
25
A Co-ed, "Georgie's Old Fashioned," San Francisco Bulletin, March 16,1923, 20.
26
Liberal, 'Approves Short Skirts," San Fran- cisco Bulletin, September 11,1922,12.
27
M.D.F., "He Objects to Trousers," San Fran- cisco Bulletin, February 21,1923,16.
28
Gordon WcWhirter, "Immodest! No Sir!" San Francisco Bulletin, February 28, 1923, 20.
29
Ruth Stacker, "Swimming Star First To Cross The Line," San Francisco Call, April 22,1918, 8.
30
Frank P. Noon, "Director James Issues Final Instructions to Call's Dipsea Hikers," San Francisco Call, May 7,1920,16.
32
Frank P. Noon, "Priscilla Swearingen Wins Call's Third Annual Girls' Hike," San Fran- cisco Call, May 10,1920, 6.
33
Cahn, Coming on Strong, 35.
34
Helen Dare, "Folks Lose Interest in Femi- nine Limbs. Hiking Season On; Breeches Are Popular," San Francisco Chronicle, April 15, 1919,3.
35
Frank P. Noon, "Priscilla Swearingen Wins Call's Third Annual Girls' Hike," San Fran- cisco Call, May 10,1920, 6.
36
Frank P. Noon, "Girls Will Not Be Allowed Pacemakers While on Call Hike," San Francisco Call, April 11,1918,17.
37
Marion T. Salazar, "Date of Girls' Dipsea Hike Is Changed from May 15 to May 22," San Francisco Bulletin, April 14,1921,15.
38
Marion T. Salazar, "United States Marines to Do Their Part in Girls' Dipsea Hike," San Francisco Bulletin, April 27,1921,12.
39
Cahn, Coming on Strong, 35.
40
"While New York Mothers Organize to Pro- tect Their Blushing Boys from Young Vamps, California Co-Eds Condemn Flask Toting and Sex Talk," San Francisco Chroni- cle, April 2,1922,11.
41
"Flappers Driving Young Men Into Mis- sionary Field," San Francisco Bulletin, Sep- tember 1,1922,10.
42
Mrs. Claire Shortall, "Mrs. CE. Shortall Writes Hike Hints For Dipsea Hikers - Tight Clothing," San Francisco Call, March 23, 1918,18.
43
"Girls' Dipsea Hike Will Be Held in June This Year," San Francisco Bulletin, May 15, 1922,17.
44
Spitz, Dipsea: The Greatest Race, 173
45
Pathfinder, "Take it Easy," San Francisco Bul- letin, May 11,1921,12.
46
Edward B. Sparks, "Expert Gives Valuable Advice to the Girls Entered in Race," San Francisco Bulletin, May 22,1922,13.
47
"Dolly Harcus Says Gladys Hofvenahl Bumped Her Off Path on Dipsea Trail," San Francisco Call, June 11,1919,17.
48
Anna Irene Hart to Mr. George James, 'Anna Irene Hart Has Trouble With Dipsea Sage- brush," San Francisco Call, June 11,1919,16.
49
Spitz, Dipsea: The Greatest Race, 168-74.
50
William Unmack, "Emma Reimann [sic] Wins Bulletin Dipsea Hike," San Francisco Bulletin, May 16,1921,12.
51
Emma Reiman, "Winner Tells of Hike," San Francisco Bulletin, June 12,1922,17.
George T. Davis, "Emma Reiman Wins Hike," San Francisco Bulletin, June 12,1922, 17.
52
Spitz, Dipsea: The Greatest Race, 173.
53
Cahn, Coming on Strong, 7-30.
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