Notes

Notes
1
Elna Bakker, An Island Called California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 168
Mark A. Blunder, "Invasion and Transformation of California's Valley Grassland, a Mediter- ranean Analogue Ecosystem," in Ecological Relations in Historical Times: Human Impact and Adaptation, ed. Robin A. Butlin and Neil Roberts (Oxford: Blackwell Press, 1995), 310
Richard N. Mack, "Temperate Grasslands Vulnerable to Plant Invasions: Characteristics and Consequences," in Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective, ed. James A. Drake, et al. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1989), 165
Raymond F. Dasmann, California's Changing Environment (San Francisco: Boyd and Fraser Publishing Co. 1981), 9-21.
2
Blunder, "Invasion and Transformation of California's Valley Grassland"
Jared Dia- mond, "The Accidental Conqueror," Discover 10 (1989): 71-76
Mark A. Blunder, "Some Myths about California Grasses and Grazers," Fremontia 20 (1992): 22-27
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 269-93.
3
William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (Garden City: Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1976), 31-36.
4
Ibid., 25-30
Karl W. Butzer, "An Introduction to Current Geographical Research," in The Americas Before and After 1492: Current Geographical Research, Annals of the Association of American Geography 82 (1992): 345-68
Tom D. Dillehay, "Disease Ecology and Initial Human Migration," in The First Americans: Search and Research, ed. Tom D. Dillehay and David J. Meltzer (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1991), 231-64.
5
Phillip L. Walker, Patricia Lambert, and Michael J. DeNiro, "The Effects of European Contact on the Health of Alta California Indians," in Columbian Consequences: Archaeologi- cal and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands West, Vol. 1, ed. David H. Thomas (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989), 349-64.
6
Lynn White, Jr., "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis," Science 155 (1967): 1203-1207
Yi-Fu Tuan, "Discrepancies between Environmental Attitude and Behavior: Examples from Europe and China," Canadian Geographer 12 (1968):176-91.
7
Florence Shipek, "Kumeyaay Plant Husbandry: Fire, Water, and Erosion Manage- ment Systems," in Thomas C. Blackburn and M. Kat Anderson, eds., Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians (Menlo Park: Ballena Press Publications, 1993), 388.
8
M. Kat Anderson, "Native Californians as Ancient and Contemporary Cultivators," in Before the Wilderness, 151-54
Bev Ortiz, "Contemporary California Indian Basket Weavers and the Environment," in Before the Wilderness, 195
Thomas C. Blackburn and M. Kat An- derson, "Introduction," in Before the Wilderness, 18
Theodora Kroeber and Robert F. Heizer, Almost Ancestors: The First Californians (San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1968), 24.
9
Bernabé Cobo, Obras, 2 vols. (Madrid: Atlas Ediciones, 1964), 1:420.
10
Kroeber and Heizer, Almost Ancestors, 24.
11
Blackburn and Anderson, in Before the Wilderness, 18.
12
Stephen J. Pyne, Patricia L. Andrews, and Richard D. Laven, Introduction to Wildland Fire, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996), 608-9
Henry T. Lewis, "Patterns of In- dian Burning in California: Ecology and Ethnohistory," in Before the Wilderness, 55-116
Jan Timbrook, John R. Johnson, and David D. Earle, "Vegetation Burning by the Chu- mash," in Before the Wilderness, 117-49
Helen McCarthy, "Managing Oaks and the Acorn Crop," in Before the Wilderness, 216-28
Florence Shipek, in Before the Wilderness
Harold H. Biswell, Prescribed Burning in California Wildlands Vegetation Management (Berkeley: Uni- versity of California Press, 1989)
Anderson, in Before the Wilderness
Bev Ortiz, in Before the Wilderness, and David W. Peri and Scott M. Patterson, "The Basket Is in the Roots, That's Where It Begins," in Before the Wilderness, 175-93.
13
James G. West, "Early Historic Vegetation Change in Alta California: The Fossil Evidence," in Columbian Consequences, Vol. 1, 334
Anderson, in Before the Wilderness, 155-56
McCarthy, in Before the Wilderness, 223
Lewis, in Before the Wilderness, 69-70, 105-110.
14
Stephen W. Edwards, "Observations on the Prehistory and Ecology of Grazing in California," Fremontia 20 (1992): 3-11.
15
Anderson, in Before the Wilderness, 156.
16
Malcolm Margolin, ed., The Way We Lived: California Indian Stories, Songs and Rem- iniscences (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1993), 95, 98
Leanne Hinton, Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1994), 92
M. Kat Anderson and G. P. Nabhan, "Gardeners in Eden," Wilderness Magazine 45 (1991): 27-30
Wendell Berry, Recollected Essays, 1965-1980 (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1981), 98
Matt Vera, "The Creation of Language, a Yowlumni Story," in News From Native California 7 (1993): 19-20
Anderson, in Before the Wilderness, 152-56
Blackburn and Anderson, Before the Wilderness, 19.
17
Anderson, in Before the Wilderness, 156.
18
Lewis, in Before the Wilderness, 113
Charles E. Kay, "Aboriginal Overkill: The Role of Native Americans in Structuring Western Ecosystems," Human Nature 5 (1994): 359-98.
19
Alfred L. Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California (Berkeley: California Book Company, 1925), 238-39
Sherburne F. Cook, The Population of the California Indians 1769-1976 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 24
Sherburne F. Cook, "Histor- ical Demography," in Handbook of North Amer can Indians, Vol. 8, California, ed. Robert F. Heizer (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978), 91
Robert H. Jackson, In- dian Population Decline: The Missions of Northwestern New Spain, 1687-1840 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994), 55.
20
Raymond F. Dasmann, The Destruction of California (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1965), 33
William L. Preston, "Serpent in Eden: Dispersal of Foreign Diseases into Pre-Mission California," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 18 (1996), 2-37
McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 3-4
Jackson, Indian Population Decline, 116, 164.
21
Ann F. Ramenofsky, Vectors of Death: The Archaeology of European Contact (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1987)
Henry F. Dobyns, Their Num- ber Become Thinned: Native American Population Dynamics in Eastern North America (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983)
Daniel T. Reff, Disease, Depopulation, and Culture Change in Northwestern New Spain, 1518-1764 (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1991), 86, 177-78, 234
Robert H. Jackson, "Epidemic Disease and Population Decline in the Baja California Missions, 1697-1834," Southern California Quarterly 63 (1981): 308-46
Henry Dobyns, "Indian Extinction in the Middle Santa Cruz Valley, Arizona," New Mexico Historical Review 38 (1963): 163-81.
22
Preston, "Serpent in Eden"
Jon M. Erlandson and Kevin Bartoy, "Cabrillo, the Chu- mash, and Old World Diseases," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 17 (1995): 153-73
Jon M. Erlandson and Kevin Bartoy, "Protohistoric California: Paradise or Pan- demic," in Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology, 304-309, ed. Judyth Reed (San Diego: Society for California Archaeology, 1996)
Harry Kelsey, "European Impact on the California Indians, 1530-1830," The Americas 41 (1984): 494-515.
23
Ramenofsky, Vectors of Death, 171
Sherburne F. Cook, "The Epidemic of 1830-1833 in California and Oregon," University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 43 (1955): 322.
24
George W. Hendry, "The Adobe Brick as a Historical Source," Agricultural History 5 (1931): 110-27
West, "Early Historic Vegetation Change in Alta California," 335-48
S. A. Mensing and R. Bryne, "New Evidence for Pre-Mission Transformation of the California Grassland," Abstracts of the American Association of Geographers, 89th Annual Meeting, At- lanta, 6-9 April 1993.
25
Edwards, "Observations on the Prehistory and Ecology of Grazing in California"
Blum- ler, "Some Myths about California Grasses and Grazers," 24
Timbrook, et al., in Before the Wilderness, 138
Fred J. Kruger, G. J. Breytenbach, Ian A. W. MacDonald, and D. M. Richard- son, "The Characteristics of Invaded Mediterranean-Climate Regions," in Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective, ed. James A. Drake et al. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1989), 203.
26
Edwards, "Observations on the Prehistory and Ecology of Grazing in California," 7.
27
Dasmann, California's Changing Environment, 6
Dale R. McCullough, The Tule Elk: Its History and Ecology (Berkeley: University of California, 1969), 15
Burney Le Boeuf, "His- tory," in The Natural History of Año Nuevo, ed. Stephanie Kaza (Pacific Grove: Boxwood Press, 1981), 12.
28
Margolin, The Way We Lived, 95.
29
Charles E. Kay, "Aboriginal Overkill and Native Burning: Implications for Modern Ecosystem Management," Western Journal of Ap- plied Forestry 10 (1995): 125
D. K. Grayson, The Deserts' Past: A Natural Prehistory of the Great Basin (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993)
R. Daubenmire, "The West- ern Limits of the Range of the American Bison," Ecology 66:622-24
G. C. Frison, Prehis- toric Hunters of the High Plains, 2d ed. (New York: Academic Press, 1991)
Kay, "Aboriginal Overkill," 359-98.
30
W. R. Hddebrandt and Terry L. Jones, "Evolution of Marine Mammal Hunting: A View from the California and Oregon Coasts," Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 11 (1992): 360-401
Mark L. Raab, "An Optimal Foraging Analysis of Prehistoric Shellfish Collecting on San Clemente Island, California," Journal of Ethnology 12 (1992): 63-80
Jack M. Broughton, "Late Holocene Resource Intensification in the Sacramento Valley, Califor- nia: The Vertebrate Evidence," Journal of Anthropological Science 21 (1994a): 501-14
Jack M. Broughton, "Declines in Mammalian Foraging Efficiency During the Late Holocene, San Francisco Bay, California," Journal of Anthropology 13 (1994b): 371-401.
31
Herbert E. Bolton, Span- ish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542-1706 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916), 91
Juan Paez, Cabrillo's Log, 1542-1543: A Voyage of Discovery, translated by James R. Moriarity and Mary Keistman (San Diego: Cabrillo Historical Association, 1968), 5
Robert F. Heizer, Elizabethan California (Ramona: Ballena Press, 1974), 92.
32
Miguel Costanso, "The Portola Expedition of 1769-1770," Publications of the Academy of Pacific Coast History 2 (1911): 77, ed. Frederick J. Teggart
Fray Francisco Palou, Historical Memoirs of New California, vol. 2, ed. Herbert E. Bolton (New York: Russell and Russell, 1966), 219
Pedro Fages, "Expedition to San Francisco Bay in 1770: Diary of Pedro Fages," ed. Herbert E. Bolton, Publications of the Academy of Pacific Coast History 2 (1911): 9
Her- bert E. Bolton, Anza's California Expeditions, vol. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1930), 347.
33
Jackson, Indian Population Decline
Daniel T. Reff, "Contact Shock in Northwestern New Spain, 1518-1764," in Disease and De- mography in the Americas, ed. John W. Verano and Douglas H. Ubelaker (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992), 272.
34
Bakker, An Island Called California, 168.
Blunder, "Invasion and Transfor- mation of California's Valley Grassland," 310.
35
Pyne et al., Introduction to Wildland Fire, 297.
Raymond C. Clar, California Government and Forestry from Spanish Days until the Creation of the Depart- ment of Natural Resources in 1927 (Sacramento: California Division of Forestry, 1959), 8.
36
Dasmann, The Destruction of California, 61.
37
George H. Phillips, Indians and Intruders in Central California, 1769-1849 (Norman: University of Oklahoma press, 1993)
Sherburne F. Cook, "Colonial Expeditions to the In- terior of California: Central Valley, 1800-1820" Anthropology Records 10 (1960): 238-92 (Berkeley: University of California Press)
Sherburne F. Cook, "Expeditions to the Interior of California: Central Valley, 1820-1840," Anthropological Records 20 (1962): 151-214 (Berkeley: University of California Press).
Cook, "The Epidemic of 1830-1833 in California and Oregon," 322.
38
Bakker, An Island Called California, 168-69
Blunder, "Invasion and Transformation of California's Valley Grassland," 315, 324
Mack, "Temperate Grasslands Vulnerable to Plant Invasions," 165.
39
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism, 291.
40
H. F. Heady, "Valley Grassland," in Terrestrial Vegetation of California, ed. M. G. Barbour and J. Major (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1977), 493-96, 500
Lyndon Wester, "Composition of Native Grasslands in the San Joaquin Valley, California," Madroño 28 (1981)
Blunder, "Some Myths About California Grasses and Grazers," 23, 24
"Invasion and Transformation of California's Valley Grassland," 319
L. T. Burcham, California Range Land (Sacramento: Division of Forestry, Department of Natural Resources, State of California, 1957), 90-104
West, "Early Historic Vegetation Change in Alta California," 334-37.
41
Blunder, "Some Myths about California Grasses and Grazers," 25
Heady, "Valley Grasslands," 497-98
Wester, "Composition of Native Grassland in the San Joaquin Valley," 231-41.
42
John C. Ewers, The Adventures of Zenas Leonard (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959), 88.
Blunder, "Invasion and Transformation of California's Val- ley Grassland," 318.
43
Robert F. Heizer and Thomas R. Hester, "The Archaeology of Bamert Cave, Amador County, California" (on file at Berkeley: University of California Archaeology Research Fa- cility, 1973)
Thomas J. Mayfield, Indian Summer: Traditional Life Among the Choinumne In- dians of California's San Joaquin Valley (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1993), 63.
44
Harold H. Biswell, "Ecology of California Grassland," Journal of Range Management 9 (1956): 21
Blunder, "Invasion and Transformation of California's Valley Grassland," 310
Homer Aschmann, "Man's Impact on the Southern California Flora," in Symposium Pro- ceedings: Plant Communities of Southern California, ed. June Latting (California Native Plant Society Special Publication No. 2, 1976), 42-43.
45
Blackburn and Anderson, Before the Wilderness, 19
Robert Heizer, "Impact of Colonization on the Native California Species," The Journal of San Diego History 24 (1978).
46
Timbrook, et al., in Before the Wilderness, 125-26, 146
Homer As- chmann, Symposium Proceedings, 43-44.
47
Brooks D. Gist, Empire out of the Tales (Dexter MI: Thomson-Shore Inc., 1976), 195
Lewis, in Before the Wilderness, 82, 86.
48
McCarthy, in Before the Wilderness, 223.
49
Timbrook, et al., in Before the Wilderness, 135-38
Blackburn and Anderson in Before the Wilderness, 19
Shipek, in Before the Wilderness, 380
Lewis, in Before the Wilderness, 70.
50
Shipek, in Before the Wilderness, 382.
Lewis, in Before the Wilderness, 105-107.
51
Shipek, in Before the Wilderness, 382, 383.
Shipek, in Before the Wilderness, 385
West, "Early Historic Vegetation Change in Alta California," 343.
52
Frank F. Latta, "Little Journeys in the San Joaquin" (Tulare: Frank F. Latta, 1937, on file at California State Library, Sacramento), 21.
Crosby, Ecologi- cal Imperialism, 170.
53
David Hornbeck, California Patterns: A Geographical and Historical Atlas (Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1983), 55.
54
Ibid., 58
John A Schutz, Spain's Colonial Outpost (San Francisco: Boyd and Fraser Publishing Company, 1985), 92.
Edwin Bryant, What I Saw in California (Palo Alto: Lewis Osborne, 1967 [1848]), 445.
Robert H. Jackson and Edward Castillo, Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization: The Impact of the Mission System on California Indians (Albuquer- que: University of New Mexico Press, 1995), 123-31
Hornbeck, California Patterns, 55.
55
George H. Phillips, The Enduring Struggle: Indians in California History (San Fran- cisco: Boyd and Fraser Publishing Company, 1981): 39.
56
Cook, "Expeditions to the Interior of California," 271.
57
Bryant, What I Saw in California, 434.
58
Phillips, The Enduring Struggle, 97, 160.
59
Bryant, What I Saw in California, 434
R. A. Thompson, Historical and Descriptive Sketch of Sonoma County, California (Philadelphia: L. H. Everts and Co., 1877)
Ewers, The Adventures of Zenas Leonard, 122
McCullough, The Tule Elk, 20
Aschmann, Man's Im- pact on the Southern California Flora, 42, 44.
60
Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, "Ranch and Mission Days in Alta California," Century Magazine 41 (1890): 183-92.
The Works of Hubert H. Bancroft, Volume 34, California Pastoral, 1769-1848 (San Francisco: The History Com- pany, 1888), 338, 347.
61
Bryant, What I Saw in California, 302, 349.
62
Allan A. Schoenherr, A Natural History of California (Berkeley: University of Cal- ifornia Press, 1992), 718.
McCullough, The Tule Elk, 15
Burcham, California Range Land.
63
Cook, The Pop- ulation of the California Indians, 43-44
Sherburne Cook, The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civilization (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 346, 357
George H. Phillips, "Indians and the Breakdown of the Spanish Mission System in Cali- fornia," Ethnohistory 21 (1974): 291-302.
64
Hornbeck, California Patterns, 51
Schutz, Spain's Colonial Outpost, 5.
65
E. R. Smith, "The California Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) Natural His- tory and Control Policies with Economic and Ecological Ramifications" (M.A. thesis, Biol- ogy, San Francisco State University, 1980).
66
Vallejo, "Ranch and Mission Days in Alta California"
Tracy I. Storer and Lloyd P. Tevis, Jr., California Grizzly (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955), 17, 129-30.
67
Zephyrin Engelhardt, Santa Barbara Mission (San Francisco: James H. Barry, 1923), 64
Storer and Tevis, California Grizzly, 120.
68
John Cassin, "Mammalogy and Ornithology," in Charles Wilkes, United States Ex- ploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842., vol. 8 (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1858), 14
Storer and Tevis, California Grizzly, 82-90.
69
Scott W. Stine, "Hunting and the Faunal Landscape, Subsistence and Commercial Venery in Early California" (M.A. thesis, Geography, University of California, Berkeley, 1980), 50-53.
70
Ewers, The Adventures of Zenas Leonard, 120.
71
George C. Yount, quoted in Charles L. Camp, "The Chronicles of George C. Yount: California Pioneer of 1826," California Historical Society Quarterly 2 (1923):52.
72
Mc- Cidlough, The Tule Elk, 22, 26.
73
Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, vol. 5, 15.
Cook, "Colonial Expeditions to the Interior of California," 248, 252, 255, 258
Ewers, The Adventures of Zenas Leonard
Camp, "The Chronicle of George C. Yount"
John Work, Fur Brigade to the Bonaventura: John Work's California Expedition, 1832-1833, for the Hudson's Bay Company, ed. Alice B. Ma- loney (San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1945)
Bryant, What I Saw in California
Jean F. La Pérouse, The First Federal Expedition to California (Los Angeles: Glen Dawson, 1959)
C. M. Scammon, The Marine Mammals of the Northwest Coast of North America (San Francisco: John Carmany and Sons, 1874)
William Shaler, Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North Western Coast of America, Made in 1804 by William Shaler (Claremont: Saunders Studio Press, 1935), 55
John Bidwell, Echoes of the Past: An Account of the First Emigrant Train to California (Chico, Calif: Chico Advertiser, 1906).
74
Elliott Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer: The Diary and Itinerary of Francisco Garces, vol. 1 (New York: Francis P. Harper, 1900), 241, 280
Costanso, The Portolá Expedition of 1769-1770, 14 and 101
Eugene H. Bolton, Fray Juan Crespi: Missionary Explorer on the Pacific Coast, 1769-1774 (New York: AMS Press, 1971), 239, 253.
A. Duhaut-Cilly, "Duhaut-Cilly's Account of California in the Years 1827-1828," translated by Charles F. Carter, Quarterly of the California Historical Society 8 (1929): 306-36.
75
Adele Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade, 1784-1848 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1941).
Duflot de Mofrás, Travels on the Pacific Coast, 2 vols. (Santa Ana: Fine Arts Press, 1937), 257-58
F. W. Beechey, An Ac- count of a Visit to California in 1826-1827 (San Francisco: Grabhorn Press, 1941).
Duhaut-CiUy, Duhaut- Cilly's Account of California in the Years 1827-1828, 241.
McCidlough, The Tule Elk, 25-26.
76
Stine, "Hunting and the Fau- nal Landscape," 46.
77
Work, Fur Brigade to the Bonaventura, 28.
ibid, 31.
78
Ibid., 31.
Bryant, What I Saw in California, 302.
79
Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, 183
McCullough, The Tule Elk, 22, 26.
80
K. W. Kenyon, The Sea Otter in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (Washington: U.S. Depart- ment of the Interior, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 1969), 135
Ogden, The Cal- ifornia Sea Otter Trade.
81
Carl L. Hubbs, "Back from Oblivion: Guadalupe Fur Seal: A Living Species," Pacific Discovery 9 (1956): 15.
Burney Le Boeuf, "Mammals," in The Natural History of Ano Nuevo, 287-325.
Terry L. Jones and William R. Hildebrandt, "Reasserting a Prehistoric Tragedy of the Commons: Reply to Lyman," Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14 (1995):78-98.
82
Anna H. Gayton, "Yokuts and Western Mono Ethnography," Anthropological Records 10 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948), 78
Shipek, in Before the Wilderness, 387.
83
Clar, California Government and Forestry, 14.
ibid., 3-52.
84
ibid., 15-18, 21-22, 25-26, 39, 42.
85
Mexican Minister of Interior Romero, quoted in ibid., 30.
ibid., 20, 30, 41-42.
86
Stephen Barton, "Early History of Tulare," Visalia Weekly Delta (July 2, 1874).
87
Hornbeck, California Patterns, 51-53
Norris Hundley, Jr., The Great Thirst: Californians and Water, 1770s-1990s (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 42.
88
Hornbeck, California Patterns, 53.
89
Camp, "The Chronicle of George C. Yount," 59.
90
Ibid, 43.
Hundley, The Great Thirst, 36-49.
91
Frank Adams, "The Historical Background of California Agriculture," in California Agriculture, ed. Claude B. Hutchison (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1946), 10
Jackson and Castillo, Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization, 114-23
Julia G. Costedo, "Variability Among the Alta California Missions: The Economics of Agri- cultural Production," in Columbian Consequences, Vol. 1, 435-49.
92
Bryant, What I Saw in California, 265, 314
Phillips, Indians and Intruders, 99-100
Ewers, The Adventures of Zenas Leonard, 91, 95, 122.
93
Storer and Tevis, California Grizzly, 61
Smith, "The California Ground Squirrel."
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